Encyclopedia Astronautica
Soyuz T



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Soyuz T
Credit: © Mark Wade
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Soyuz-T interior
Credit: © Mark Wade
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Soyuz-T interior
Credit: © Mark Wade
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Soyuz T
Credit: © Mark Wade
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Soyuz Descent Module
Credit: © Mark Wade
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Soyuz T panel
Soyuz T control panel
Credit: © Mark Wade
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Soyuz T panel
Soyuz T control panel 1
Credit: © Mark Wade
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Soyuz T panel
Soyuz T control panel 2
Credit: © Mark Wade
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Soyuz T panel
Soyuz T control panel 3
Credit: © Mark Wade
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Soyuz T panel
Soyuz T control panel 4
Credit: © Mark Wade
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Soyuz T panel
Soyuz T control panel 5
Credit: © Mark Wade
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Panel Soyuz TM
Control panel of the Soyuz T/TM later version of the space station ferry vehicle..
Credit: © Mark Wade
Russian manned spacecraft. 18 launches, 1978.04.04 (Cosmos 1001) to 1986.03.13 (Soyuz T-15). Soyuz T had a long gestation, beginning as the Soyuz VI military orbital complex Soyuz in 1967.

It finally emerged as a complete redesign of the Soyuz in the late seventies. The Soyuz T introduced a revised Igla rendezvous system and a new service module with unitary translation / attitude control thrusters as part of a single bipropellant system with the main pump-fed engine. Solar panels were reintroduced; the fuel load was increased; and all new digital avionics were developed. Crew safety was improved with a new launch escape system and accommodation was provided for the first time for a three-man crew in spacesuits.

The USSR Defense Ministry issued a requirement for an "Orbital Research Station" (OIS) in March 1967 (reaffirmed in the decree of May 1968). This small station was to operate at an inclination of 51.6 degrees, an altitude of 250-270km, and have a flight duration of 30 days. Kozlov's Kuibyshev Branch of the former OKB-1 delivered a proposal for a Soyuz VI (7K-VI) complex in November 1967. (Not to be confused with the quite different Soyuz VI developed by Kozlov in the 1965-1967 period).

The new Soyuz was called by the OKB the 7K-S, and given the article number 11F732 by the military. The Soyuz-VI (abbreviation for military research) complex would consist of the OIS (with 700 to 1,000 kg of scientific equipment) and the Soyuz 7K-S. The Soyuz would have a crew if two, a probe-drogue docking system and an internal transfer tunnel.

The draft design for the OIS was released on 21 June 1968, followed by that for the 7K-S on 14 October 1968. Drawing release began in 1969. The OIS was cancelled in February 1970 after the start of the Salyut project. The Soyuz 7K-S, however continued in two parallel designs - the base variant, which was for special-purpose solo missions; and a space station transport variant 7K-ST. The revised designs for the 7K-S were completed on 11 August 1972.

The initial Soyuz 7K-S program was to consist of four unmanned, followed by two manned test flights, then two operational launches. Cosmonauts (among them Lyakhov and Voronov ) were assigned to the project in 1973. A State Commission was formed on 21 June 1974 to oversee the flight tests.

The draft design for 7K-ST space station transport version was completed in August 1974.

After the fourth N1 launch failure, a major reorganization of Soviet space enterprises was undertaken. Mishin was fired as head of the former OKB-1. After Kozlov turned down the job, Glushko was made head of a newly formed NPO Energia, combining OKB-1 and Glushko's Energomash engine production OKB. The 7K-S was cancelled; experiments planned for the 7K-S solo flights were transferred to the Salyut program.

Development of the launch escape system for 7K-S had run from 1968 to 1972. The new design was used for Soyuz Apollo-Soyuz Test Project version.

At the time the Soyuz 7K-S was cancelled, one of the uncrewed test vehicles was already at Tyuratam being prepared for launch. The first three were launched unmanned as technology tests - Cosmos 670 (7K-S No.1), Cosmos 772 (7K-S No.2), and Cosmos 869 (7K-S No.3).

The Soyuz 7K-ST transport project continued, except now being redesigned for a crew of three. The revised design for the new version was issued in 1975; and the first Soyuz T flew in 1978 as Cosmos 1001. The basic Soyuz T was adapted in the TM version for use with the Mir space station, and it would continue in use into the 21st Century as the Assured Crew Rescue Vehicle for the International Space Station.

Characteristics

Crew Size: 3. Orbital Storage: 180 days. Habitable Volume: 9.00 m3. Spacecraft delta v: 320 m/s (1,040 ft/sec). Electric System: 0.60 average kW.

AKA: 11F732.
Gross mass: 6,850 kg (15,100 lb).
Unfuelled mass: 6,150 kg (13,550 lb).
Height: 7.48 m (24.54 ft).
Span: 10.60 m (34.70 ft).
Thrust: 3.92 kN (881 lbf).
Specific impulse: 305 s.
First Launch: 1978.04.04.
Last Launch: 1986.03.13.
Number: 18 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
Associated Spacecraft
  • Soyuz T SA Russian manned spacecraft module. 18 launches, 1978.04.04 (Cosmos 1001) to 1986.03.13 (Soyuz T-15). Significantly improved Soyuz re-entry capsule, based on development done in Soyuz 7K-S program. Accommodation for crew of three in spacesuits. Reentry capsule. More...
  • Soyuz T BO Russian manned spacecraft module. 18 launches, 1978.04.04 (Cosmos 1001) to 1986.03.13 (Soyuz T-15). Lightweight male/female docking system with flange-type probe, internal transfer tunnel. Igla automatic rendezvous and docking system. Living section. More...
  • Soyuz T PAO Russian manned spacecraft module. 18 launches, 1978.04.04 (Cosmos 1001) to 1986.03.13 (Soyuz T-15). Improved PAO service module derived from Soyuz 7K-S with pressure-fed main engines and unitary RCS/main engine propellant feed system. Equipment-engine section. More...

Associated Engines
  • KDU-426 Isayev N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 3.089 kN. Soyuz-T orbital correction engine. In Production. Pressure-fed engine. Used as long duration engine for correction orbits of satellites. Isp=292s. More...

See also
  • Soyuz The Russian Soyuz spacecraft has been the longest-lived, most adaptable, and most successful manned spacecraft design. In production for fifty years, more than 240 have been built and flown on a wide range of missions. The design will remain in use with the international space station well into the 21st century, providing the only manned access to the station after the retirement of the shuttle in 2011. More...

Associated Flights
  • Soyuz T-8 Crew: Serebrov, Strekalov, Titov Vladimir. Manned three crew. Unsuccessful mission. Igla approach system antenna was damaged during ascent; failed to rendezvous with Salyut 7. Further attempts toman Salyut 7 could not take place for two months because of launch and abort lighting constraints. Backup crew: Aleksandrov, Lyakhov, Savinykh. More...
  • Soyuz T-10-1 Crew: Strekalov, Titov Vladimir. First manned pad abort. Launch vehicle blew up on pad, crew rescued by launch escape tower, which pulled their capsule away at 20 G's. Backup crew: Kizim, Solovyov Vladimir. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Soyuz Russian orbital launch vehicle. The world's first ICBM became the most often used and most reliable launch vehicle in history. The original core+four strap-on booster missile had a small third stage added to produce the Vostok launch vehicle, with a payload of 5 metric tons. Addition of a larger third stage produced the Voskhod/Soyuz vehicle, with a payload over 6 metric tons. Using this with a fourth stage, the resulting Molniya booster placed communications satellites and early lunar and planetary probes in higher energy trajectories. By the year 2000 over 1,628 had been launched with an unmatched success rate of 97.5% for production models. Improved models providing commercial launch services for international customers entered service in the new millenium, and a new launch pad at Kourou was to be inaugurated in 2009. It appeared that the R-7 could easily still be in service 70 years after its first launch. More...
  • Soyuz 11A511U Russian standardised man-rated orbital launch vehicle derived from the original R-7 ICBM of 1957. It has been launched in greater numbers than any orbital launch vehicle in history. Not coincidentally, it has been the most reliable as well. After over 40 years service in Russia, ESA built a new launch pad at Kourou which will keep it in service from three launch sites in three countries well into the mid-21st Century. More...
  • Soyuz 11A511U2 Russian orbital launch vehicle. Soyuz 11A511U2 used synthetic kerosene ('Sintin') in first stage for launch of premium reconnaisance satellite and manned payloads requiring just a bit more payload than the standard 11A511 could offer. Further use of the 11A511U2 abandoned in 1996 due to Sintin production stoppage. Later Soyuz spacecraft launched on standard Soyuz, with reduced payload and rendezvous with Mir in lower orbit accepted. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Korolev Russian manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Korolev Design Bureau, Kaliningrad, Russia. More...
  • MOM Russian agency overseeing development of spacecraft. Ministry of General Machine Building (Moskva, Russia), Moscow, Russia. More...

Associated Programs
  • Mir The Mir space station was the last remnant of the once mighty Soviet space programme. It was built to last only five years, and was to have been composed of modules launched by Proton and Buran/Energia launch vehicles. These modules were derived from those originally designed by Chelomei in the 1960's for the Almaz military station programme. As the Soviet Union collapsed Mir stayed in orbit, but the final modules were years late and could only be completed with American financial assistance. Kept flying over a decade beyond its rated life, Mir proved a source of pride to the Russian people and proved the ability of their cosmonauts and engineers to improvise and keep operations going despite all manner of challenges and mishaps. More...
  • Salyut 6 Mishin was authorised in December 1973 to build an improved design DOS-5 version of the Salyut station using Almaz facilities. Mishin's bureau borrowed the two docking port configuration of Chelomei's Almaz OPS-2 This station's second docking port would allow rotation of crews and resupply/refueling using unmanned Progress spacecraft. More...
  • Salyut 7 Due to cancellation of the Almaz military station, and delays in the Mir project, the decision was taken in the late 1970's to fly the back-up to DOS-5 / Salyut 6. This was launched as Salyut 7 in 1982. The opportunity was still taken to fly 'guest cosmonauts' from friendly countries on short visits to the stations, although emphasis was placed on military experiments. Salyut 7 was able to conduct significant military experiments thanks to the greatly increased volume and payload of the TKS modules diverted from the Almaz programme that docked with the station. More...

Associated Propellants
  • N2O4/UDMH Nitrogen tetroxide became the storable liquid propellant of choice from the late 1950's. Unsymmetrical Dimethylhydrazine ((CH3)2NNH2) became the storable liquid fuel of choice by the mid-1950's. Development of UDMH in the Soviet Union began in 1949. It is used in virtually all storable liquid rocket engines except for some orbital manoeuvring engines in the United States, where MMH has been preferred due to a slightly higher density and performance. More...

Bibliography
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Home Page (launch records), Harvard University, 1997-present. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • JPL Mission and Spacecraft Library, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1997. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Semenov, Yuri P Editor, Raketno-kosmicheskaya korporatsiya 'Energia' imeni S P Koroleva, Moscow, Russia, 1996.
  • Clark, Philip, The Soviet Manned Space Program, Salamander Books, London, 1988.
  • Furniss, Tim, Manned Spaceflight Log, Jane's, London, 1986.
  • Isakowitz, Steven J,, International Reference to Space Launch Systems Second Edition, AIAA, Washington DC, 1991 (succeeded by 2000 edition).
  • Oberg, James, Red Star in Orbit, Random House, New York, 1981.
  • Semenov, Yu. P., S P Korolev Space Corporation Energia, RKK Energia, 1994.
  • Zhelyeznakov, "Personal communication.",
  • Lantratov, K., "'Zvezda' Dmitriya Kozlova", Novosti Kosmonavtiki, 1997, Issues 3 to 6 (four part article).
  • Cassutt, Michael, Who's Who in Space, Macmillan, New York, 1993.

Associated Launch Sites
  • Baikonur Russia's largest cosmodrome, the only one used for manned launches and with facilities for the larger Proton, N1, and Energia launch vehicles. The spaceport ended up on foreign soil after the break-up of Soviet Union. The official designations NIIP-5 and GIK-5 are used in official Soviet histories. It was also universally referred to as Tyuratam by both Soviet military staff and engineers, and the US intelligence agencies. Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union the Russian Federation has insisted on continued use of the old Soviet 'public' name of Baikonur. In its Kazakh (Kazak) version this is rendered Baykonur. More...

Soyuz T Chronology


1974 July - .
  • Soyuz 7K-S cancelled; Soyuz 7K-ST continued - . Nation: USSR. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-S; Soyuz OB-VI; Soyuz T. The 7K-S was cancelled at the same time as the N1 and the reorganisation of the space industry. Experiments planned for the solo flights were transferred to the Salyut program. The first test vehicle was already at Baikonur being prepared for launch. It was decided to launch the first three unmanned as technology tests - Cosmos 670 (7K-S No.1), Cosmos 772 (7K-S No.2), and Cosmos 869 (7K-S No.3). The Soyuz 7K-ST transport project continued, except now being redesigned for a crew of three. The 7K-ST would eventually fly as the Soyuz T and Soyuz TM ferry to the Salyut 7 and Mir space stations.

1978 April 4 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1001 - . Payload: Soyuz T s/n 4L. Mass: 6,850 kg (15,100 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz T. Duration: 10.87 days. Decay Date: 1978-04-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 10783 . COSPAR: 1978-036A. Apogee: 228 km (141 mi). Perigee: 199 km (123 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. Manned precursor. Recovered April 15, 1978 12:02 GMT. Unsuccessful mission. Soyuz T test -failure.
    Maneuver Summary:
    202 km X 231 km orbit to 195 km X 291 km orbit. Delta V: 19 m/s
    195 km X 291 km orbit to 306 km X 322 km orbit. Delta V: 40 m/s
    306 km X 322 km orbit to 308 km X 318 km orbit. Delta V: 1 m/s
    Total Delta V: 60 m/s.
    Officially: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space.

1979 January 31 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1074 - . Payload: Soyuz T s/n 5L. Mass: 6,850 kg (15,100 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz T. Duration: 60.04 days. Decay Date: 1979-04-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 11259 . COSPAR: 1979-008A. Apogee: 238 km (147 mi). Perigee: 195 km (121 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Manned precursor. Recovered April 1, 1979 10:09 GMT. Soyuz T Test.
    Maneuver Summary:
    197 km X 240 km orbit to 255 km X 297 km orbit. Delta V: 33 m/s
    255 km X 297 km orbit to 264 km X 306 km orbit. Delta V: 4 m/s
    264 km X 306 km orbit to 309 km X 321 km orbit. Delta V: 17 m/s
    309 km X 321 km orbit to 279 km X 357 km orbit. Delta V: 18 m/s
    279 km X 357 km orbit to 352 km X 402 km orbit. Delta V: 32 m/s
    352 km X 402 km orbit to 363 km X 384 km orbit. Delta V: 8 m/s
    Total Delta V: 112 m/s
    Officially: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space.

1979 December 16 - . 12:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Soyuz T-1 - . Payload: Soyuz T s/n 6L. Mass: 6,850 kg (15,100 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz T. Duration: 100.38 days. Decay Date: 1980-03-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 11640 . COSPAR: 1979-103A. Apogee: 252 km (156 mi). Perigee: 213 km (132 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. New generation Soyuz capsule; unmanned flight to Salyut 6. Docked with Salyut 6. Recovered March 25, 1980 21:47 GMT. Unmanned test of Soyuz T design.
    Officially: Complex experimental testing of new on-board systems and assemblies under various flight conditions and operation in conjunction with the Salyut-6 orbital station.

1980 June 5 - . 14:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Soyuz T-2 - . Call Sign: Yupiter (Jupiter ). Crew: Aksyonov; Malyshev. Backup Crew: Kizim; Makarov. Payload: Soyuz T s/n 7L. Mass: 6,850 kg (15,100 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Aksyonov; Malyshev; Kizim; Makarov. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 6 EP-6; Salyut 6 EO-4. Spacecraft: Soyuz T. Duration: 3.93 days. Decay Date: 1980-06-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 11825 . COSPAR: 1980-045A. Apogee: 232 km (144 mi). Perigee: 195 km (121 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. Summary: Test flight of new Soyuz T; docked with Salyut 6. Conducted testing and development of on-board systems in the improved Soyuz T series transport vehicle under piloted conditions..

1980 November - .
1980 November 27 - . 14:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Soyuz T-3 - . Call Sign: Mayak (Beacon ). Crew: Kizim; Makarov; Strekalov. Backup Crew: Kovalyonok; Polyakov; Savinykh. Payload: Soyuz T s/n 8L. Mass: 6,850 kg (15,100 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Kizim; Makarov; Strekalov; Kovalyonok; Polyakov; Savinykh. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 6 EO-5. Spacecraft: Soyuz T. Duration: 12.80 days. Decay Date: 1980-12-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 12077 . COSPAR: 1980-094A. Apogee: 260 km (160 mi). Perigee: 256 km (159 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Manned three crew. Docked with Salyut 6. Tested the improved transport ship of the 'SOYUZ T' series; transported to the Salyut-6 orbital station a crew consisting of L D Kizim, O G Makarov and G M Strekalov to carry out repair and preventive work and scientific and technical investigation and experiments.

1981 March 12 - . 19:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Soyuz T-4 - . Call Sign: Foton (Photon ). Crew: Kovalyonok; Savinykh. Backup Crew: Andreyev; Zudov. Payload: Soyuz T s/n 10L. Mass: 6,850 kg (15,100 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Kovalyonok; Savinykh; Andreyev; Zudov. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 6. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 6 EO-6. Spacecraft: Soyuz T. Duration: 74.73 days. Decay Date: 1981-05-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 12334 . COSPAR: 1981-023A. Apogee: 237 km (147 mi). Perigee: 201 km (124 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Summary: Manned two crew. Docked with Salyut 6. Transported to the Salyut-6 orbital station cosmonauts V V Kovalenok and V P Savinykh to carry out repairs and preventive maintenance and scientific and technical investigations and experiments..

1982 May 13 - . 09:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Soyuz T-5 - . Call Sign: Elbrus (Elbrus - tallest mountain in Europe). Crew: Berezovoi; Lebedev. Backup Crew: Strekalov; Titov, Vladimir. Payload: Soyuz T s/n 11L. Mass: 6,850 kg (15,100 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Berezovoi; Lebedev; Strekalov; Titov, Vladimir. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 7. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 7 EO-1. Spacecraft: Soyuz T. Duration: 106.21 days. Decay Date: 1982-08-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 13173 . COSPAR: 1982-042A. Apogee: 231 km (143 mi). Perigee: 190 km (110 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. Summary: Carried Anatoli Berezovoi, Valentin Lebedev to Salyut 7 to conduct scientific research and experiments; returned crew of Soyuz T-7 to Earth..

1982 June 24 - . 16:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Soyuz T-6 - . Call Sign: Pamir (Pamirs ). Crew: Chretien; Dzhanibekov; Ivanchenkov. Backup Crew: Baudry; Kizim; Solovyov, Vladimir. Payload: Soyuz T s/n 9L. Mass: 6,850 kg (15,100 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Chretien; Dzhanibekov; Ivanchenkov; Baudry; Kizim; Solovyov, Vladimir. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 7. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 7 EP-1; Salyut 7 EO-1. Spacecraft: Soyuz T. Duration: 7.91 days. Decay Date: 1982-07-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 13292 . COSPAR: 1982-063A. Apogee: 233 km (144 mi). Perigee: 189 km (117 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. Manned three crew. Docked with Salyut 7. Transported to the Salyut-7 orbital station the Soviet-French international crew, comprising V A Dzhanibekov (USSR), A S Ivanchenkov (USSR) and Jean-Loup Chretien (France) to conduct scientific research and experiments.

1982 August 19 - . 17:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Soyuz T-7 - . Call Sign: Dnepr (Dnieper ). Crew: Popov; Savitskaya; Serebrov. Backup Crew: Pronina; Romanenko; Savinykh. Payload: Soyuz T s/n 12L. Mass: 6,850 kg (15,100 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Popov; Savitskaya; Serebrov; Pronina; Romanenko; Savinykh. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 7. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 7 EP-2; Salyut 7 EO-1. Spacecraft: Soyuz T. Duration: 113.08 days. Decay Date: 1982-12-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 13425 . COSPAR: 1982-080A. Apogee: 299 km (185 mi). Perigee: 289 km (179 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 90.30 min. Summary: Docked with Salyut 7. Carried Svetlana Savitskaya, Leonid Popov, Alexander Serebrov to Salyut 7 to conduct scientific and technical research and experiments..

1983 April 20 - . 13:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U. LV Configuration: Soyuz 11A511U 372.
1983 June 27 - . 09:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U. LV Configuration: Soyuz 11A511U 379.
  • Soyuz T-9 - . Call Sign: Proton (Proton ). Crew: Aleksandrov; Lyakhov. Backup Crew: Strekalov; Titov, Vladimir. Payload: Soyuz T s/n 14L. Mass: 6,850 kg (15,100 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Aleksandrov; Lyakhov; Strekalov; Titov, Vladimir. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 7. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 7 EO-2. Spacecraft: Soyuz T. Duration: 149.45 days. Decay Date: 1983-11-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 14152 . COSPAR: 1983-062A. Apogee: 228 km (141 mi). Perigee: 197 km (122 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Summary: Manned two crew. Docked with Salyut 7. Transported to the Salyut-7 orbital station a crew consisting of V A Lyakhov, commander of the spacecraft, and A P Aleksandrov, flight engineer, to conduct scientific and technical research and experiments..

1983 September 26 - . 19:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U. FAILURE: Launch vehicle blew up on pad.. Failed Stage: 0.
1984 February 8 - . 12:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Soyuz T-10 - . Call Sign: Mayak (Beacon ). Crew: Atkov; Kizim; Solovyov, Vladimir. Backup Crew: Polyakov; Savinykh; Vasyutin. Payload: Soyuz 7K-ST s/n 15L. Mass: 6,850 kg (15,100 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Atkov; Kizim; Solovyov, Vladimir; Polyakov; Savinykh; Vasyutin. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 7. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 7 EO-3. Spacecraft: Soyuz T. Duration: 62.95 days. Decay Date: 1984-04-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 14701 . COSPAR: 1984-014A. Apogee: 219 km (136 mi). Perigee: 199 km (123 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. Manned three crew. Docked with Salyut 7. Transported a crew consisting of ship's commander L D Kizim, flight engineer V A Solovyov and cosmonaut-research O Y Atkov to the SALYUT-7 orbital station to conduct scientific and technical studies and experiments.

1984 April 3 - . 13:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Soyuz T-11 - . Call Sign: Yupiter (Jupiter ). Crew: Malyshev; Sharma; Strekalov. Backup Crew: Berezovoi; Grechko; Malhotra. Payload: Soyuz T s/n 17L. Mass: 6,850 kg (15,100 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Malyshev; Sharma; Strekalov; Berezovoi; Grechko; Malhotra. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 7. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 7 EP-3; Salyut 7 EO-3. Spacecraft: Soyuz T. Duration: 181.91 days. Decay Date: 1984-10-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 14872 . COSPAR: 1984-032A. Apogee: 224 km (139 mi). Perigee: 195 km (121 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. Manned three crew. Docked with Salyut 7.Transported a Soviet-Indian international crew comprising ship's commander Y V Malyshev, flight engineer G M Strekalov (USSR) and cosmonaut-researcher R Sharma (India) to the SALYUT-7 orbital station to conduct scientific and technical studies and experiments.

1984 July 17 - . 17:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Soyuz T-12 - . Call Sign: Pamir (Pamir mountains). Crew: Dzhanibekov; Savitskaya; Volk. Backup Crew: Ivanova; Savinykh; Vasyutin. Payload: Soyuz T s/n 18L. Mass: 7,020 kg (15,470 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Dzhanibekov; Savitskaya; Volk; Ivanova; Savinykh; Vasyutin. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 7. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 7 EP-4; Salyut 7 EO-3. Spacecraft: Soyuz T. Duration: 11.80 days. Decay Date: 1984-07-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 15119 . COSPAR: 1984-073A. Apogee: 218 km (135 mi). Perigee: 192 km (119 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.60 min. Summary: Docked with Salyut 7. Transported a crew comprising ship's commander V A Dzhanibekov, flight engineer S E Savitskaya and cosmonaut-research I P Volk to the Salyut-7 orbital station to conduct scientific and technical studies and experiments..

1985 March - .
1985 June 6 - . 06:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2. LV Configuration: Soyuz 11A511U2 002.
  • Soyuz T-13 - . Call Sign: Pamir (Pamir mountains). Crew: Dzhanibekov; Savinykh. Backup Crew: Aleksandrov; Popov. Payload: Soyuz T s/n 19L. Mass: 6,850 kg (15,100 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Dzhanibekov; Savinykh; Aleksandrov; Popov. Agency: MOM. Program: Salyut 7. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Salyut 7 EO-4-1a; Salyut 7 EO-4-1b. Spacecraft: Soyuz T. Duration: 112.13 days. Decay Date: 1985-09-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 15804 . COSPAR: 1985-043A. Apogee: 222 km (137 mi). Perigee: 198 km (123 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. Docked with Salyut 7. Delivered to the Salyut-7 orbital station a crew consisting of flight commander V A Dzhanibekov and flight engineer V P Savinykh to carry out emergency repairs to inert Salyut 7 station and to conduct scientific and technical research and experiments.

1985 September 17 - . 12:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2. LV Configuration: Soyuz 11A511U2 007.
1986 Early - .
1986 March 13 - . 12:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2. LV Configuration: Soyuz 11A511U2 012.
  • Soyuz T-15 - . Call Sign: Mayak (Beacon ). Crew: Kizim; Solovyov, Vladimir. Backup Crew: Aleksandrov; Viktorenko. Payload: Soyuz T 11F732 s/n 21L. Mass: 7,020 kg (15,470 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Kizim; Solovyov, Vladimir; Aleksandrov; Viktorenko. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Mir EO-1. Spacecraft: Soyuz T. Duration: 125.00 days. Decay Date: 1986-07-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 16643 . COSPAR: 1986-022A. Apogee: 366 km (227 mi). Perigee: 331 km (205 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.50 min. Mir Main Expedition EO-01. Epic repair mission. The crew, consisting of ship's commander L D Kizim and flight engineer V A Solovyov first docked with the Mir orbital station to conduct scientific and technical studies and experiments. Mir then maneuvered 17 April to match Salyut 7's orbit at 4000 km separation, then again on 4 May to catch up. After six weeks aboard Mir, Soyuz T-15 undocked on 5 May, then rendezvoused and manually docked with the inoperative Salyut 7 station. This was the only flight in history by a single spacecraft between two space stations. The Salyut-7 station was found to be ice bound and without electrical power. The crew repaired the station, regaining power, heat, and environmental control. The also removed experimental results left behind by last crew. Soyuz T-15 undocked Salyut 7 on 25 June, and redocked with Mir on 26 June, delivering 400 kg of scientific material from Salyut 7, including a multichannel spectrometer. Following further work aboard Mir, the crew landed on July 16, 1986 at 12:34 GMT. No crew ever revisited Salyut 7; it made an uncontrolled reentry over Argentina.

1986 June - .
1986 September - .
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