Encyclopedia Astronautica
Soyuz TMA



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Soyuz TMA Panel
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Soyuz TMA Cockpit
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Soyuz TMA Cutaway
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Soyuz TMA DM Cutaway
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Soyuz TMA Panel
Russian three-crew manned spacecraft. Operational, first launch 2002.10.30. Designed for use as a lifeboat for the International Space Station. After the retirement of the US shuttle in 2011, Soyuz TMA was the only conveying crews to the ISS. Except for the Chinese Shenzhou, it became mankind's sole means of access to space.

It incorporated several changes to accommodate NASA requirements, including more latitude in the height and weight of the crew and improved parachute systems. The spacecraft also incorporates two new amber cockpit displays. In addition to the three crew, the TMA could deliver up to 100 kg of payload to the station and return up to 50 kg.

From 2009 Soyuz TMA's flew with the new new TsVM-101 computer in place of the old Argon-16 (introduced on Soyuz-T in the 1970's). The TsVM-101 was much more capable, much smaller, and 9 times lighter (8.3 kg vs. 70 kg). In connection with this the analogue telemetry system was replaced by a smaller digital system. This modifications was originally planned in the late 1990's, but shelved for financial reasons. However the NII Argon design bureau discontinued production of the old computer, forcing RKK Energia to fund development of the TsVM-101 at NII Submikron in Tselenograd. Soyuz TMA's equipped with the new computers received the new article number 11F732A47 with a new serial number series beginning with 701. The computers were installed in the service module. In a second modification, but no earlier than 2010 the KS-020M descent module computer, used for control during re-entry, would be replaced with the TsVM-101, which would be moved from the service module to the descent module.

Characteristics

Crew Size: 3. Orbital Storage: 200 days. Habitable Volume: 9.00 m3. Spacecraft delta v: 390 m/s (1,270 ft/sec). Electric System: 0.60 average kW.

AKA: 11F732.
Gross mass: 7,220 kg (15,910 lb).
Unfuelled mass: 6,320 kg (13,930 lb).
Height: 6.98 m (22.90 ft).
Diameter: 2.20 m (7.20 ft).
Span: 10.70 m (35.10 ft).
Thrust: 3.92 kN (881 lbf).
Specific impulse: 305 s.
First Launch: 2002.10.30.
Last Launch: 2011.06.07.
Number: 23 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
Associated Spacecraft
  • Soyuz TMA SA Russian manned spacecraft module. Operational. First launch 2002.10.30. Reentry capsule. More...
  • Soyuz TMA PAO Russian manned spacecraft module. Operational. First launch 2002.10.30. Further improvement of Soyuz T PAO service module with pressure-fed main engines and unitary RCS/main engine propellant feed system. Equipment-engine section. More...
  • Soyuz TMA BO Russian manned spacecraft module. Operational. First launch 2002.10.30. Lightweight male/female docking system with flange-type probe, internal transfer tunnel. Kurs automatic rendezvous and docking system with two Kurs antennae, no tower. Living section. More...

Associated Engines
  • KTDU-80 Isayev N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 6.190 kN. Soyuz TM, Progress M. In Production. Isp=326s. Propulsion system included 4 spherical tanks for a total of 880 kg propellant. Developed from NII Mash experimental thruster. 3 thrust levels by 4 valves. More...

See also
  • Soyuz The Russian Soyuz spacecraft has been the longest-lived, most adaptable, and most successful manned spacecraft design. In production for fifty years, more than 240 have been built and flown on a wide range of missions. The design will remain in use with the international space station well into the 21st century, providing the only manned access to the station after the retirement of the shuttle in 2011. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Soyuz Russian orbital launch vehicle. The world's first ICBM became the most often used and most reliable launch vehicle in history. The original core+four strap-on booster missile had a small third stage added to produce the Vostok launch vehicle, with a payload of 5 metric tons. Addition of a larger third stage produced the Voskhod/Soyuz vehicle, with a payload over 6 metric tons. Using this with a fourth stage, the resulting Molniya booster placed communications satellites and early lunar and planetary probes in higher energy trajectories. By the year 2000 over 1,628 had been launched with an unmatched success rate of 97.5% for production models. Improved models providing commercial launch services for international customers entered service in the new millenium, and a new launch pad at Kourou was to be inaugurated in 2009. It appeared that the R-7 could easily still be in service 70 years after its first launch. More...
  • Soyuz 11A511U Russian standardised man-rated orbital launch vehicle derived from the original R-7 ICBM of 1957. It has been launched in greater numbers than any orbital launch vehicle in history. Not coincidentally, it has been the most reliable as well. After over 40 years service in Russia, ESA built a new launch pad at Kourou which will keep it in service from three launch sites in three countries well into the mid-21st Century. More...
  • Soyuz FG Uprated Soyuz booster designed for high performance Russian government missions and delivery of Soyuz and Progress spacecraft to the International Space Station. Upgraded engines, modern avionics, reduced non-Russian content. Unknown differences to Soyuz ST. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Korolev Russian manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Korolev Design Bureau, Kaliningrad, Russia. More...

Associated Programs
  • ISS Finally completed in 2010 after a torturous 25-year development and production process, the International Space Station was originally conceived as the staging post for manned exploration of the solar systrem. Instead, it was seemed to be the death knell of manned spaceflight. More...

Associated Propellants
  • N2O4/UDMH Nitrogen tetroxide became the storable liquid propellant of choice from the late 1950's. Unsymmetrical Dimethylhydrazine ((CH3)2NNH2) became the storable liquid fuel of choice by the mid-1950's. Development of UDMH in the Soviet Union began in 1949. It is used in virtually all storable liquid rocket engines except for some orbital manoeuvring engines in the United States, where MMH has been preferred due to a slightly higher density and performance. More...

Bibliography
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Home Page (launch records), Harvard University, 1997-present. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • RSC Energia Web Site, Web Address when accessed: here.
  • NASA/GSFC Orbital Information Group Website, Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Space-Launcher.com, Orbital Report News Agency. Web Address when accessed: here.

Associated Launch Sites
  • Baikonur Russia's largest cosmodrome, the only one used for manned launches and with facilities for the larger Proton, N1, and Energia launch vehicles. The spaceport ended up on foreign soil after the break-up of Soviet Union. The official designations NIIP-5 and GIK-5 are used in official Soviet histories. It was also universally referred to as Tyuratam by both Soviet military staff and engineers, and the US intelligence agencies. Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union the Russian Federation has insisted on continued use of the old Soviet 'public' name of Baikonur. In its Kazakh (Kazak) version this is rendered Baykonur. More...

Soyuz TMA Chronology


1996 June - .
  • Soyuz TMA, X-38 selected as ISS lifeboat over Alpha Lifeboat - . Nation: Russia. Program: ISS. Spacecraft: Alpha Lifeboat; Soyuz TMA; X-38; International Space Station. Summary: The Alpha lifeboat was based on the Zarya reentry vehicle with a solid retrofire motor and cold gas thruster package. The design was rejected in favor of use of modified Soyuz TM in short term, US X-38 in long term..

2002 October 30 - . 03:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz FG. LV Configuration: Soyuz-FG E15000-004.
  • Soyuz TMA-1 - . Call Sign: Yenisey. Crew: Zalyotin; De Winne; Lonchakov. Payload: Soyuz TMA s/n 211. Mass: 7,250 kg (15,980 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Zalyotin; De Winne; Lonchakov. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: Korolev. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: ISS EP-4. Spacecraft: Soyuz TMA. Duration: 185.96 days. Decay Date: 2003-05-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 27552 . COSPAR: 2002-050A. Apogee: 295 km (183 mi). Perigee: 278 km (172 mi). Inclination: 51.6200 deg. Period: 90.20 min. Launch delayed from October 22, 28 pending investigation of causes of failure of another Soyuz booster on 15 October. Soyuz-TMA 1 was a Russian automatic passenger craft. It carried the EP-4 visiting crew of three astronauts (two Russians and one Belgian) to automatically dock with the International Space Station (ISS). This was the first flight of the new Soyuz-TMA model. It was to remain parked at the ISS as the escape craft, relieving the Soyuz TM-34. The crew conducted several microgravity experiments on the ISS during their 10-day stay before returning in Soyuz TM-34.

2003 April 18 - .
  • Soyuz TMA-2A (cancelled) - . Crew: Padalka; Duque; Kotov. Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Padalka; Duque; Kotov. Agency: RAKA. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TMA-2A. Spacecraft: Soyuz TMA. Soyuz TMA-2 was originally to switch lifeboats on the International Space Station. The crew would have returned to earth in the Soyuz TMA-1 already docked to the station. After the loss of Columbia, and the grounding of the remaining shuttles, it was decided instead that the EO-6 crew (Bowersox, Budarin, and Pettit) aboard the station would return in Soyuz TMA-1. Soyuz TMA-2 would be instead flown by a two-man skeleton crew (Malenchenko and Lu) to keep the station alive until shuttle flights could resume.

2003 April 26 - . 03:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz FG. LV Configuration: Soyuz-FG ?15000-006.
  • Soyuz TMA-2 - . Call Sign: Agat. Crew: Malenchenko; Lu. Backup Crew: Kaleri; Foale. Return Crew: Malenchenko; Lu; Duque. Payload: Soyuz TMA s/n 212. Mass: 7,250 kg (15,980 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Malenchenko; Lu; Kaleri; Foale; Duque. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: Korolev. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: ISS EO-7. Spacecraft: Soyuz TMA. Duration: 184.95 days. Decay Date: 2003-10-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 27781 . COSPAR: 2003-016A. Apogee: 394 km (244 mi). Perigee: 386 km (239 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 92.40 min. Summary: Two-man Russian/American crew to provide minimal manning of space station while shuttle is grounded. Replaced three-man crew aboard ISS since before STS-107 disaster..

2003 October 18 - . 05:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz FG. LV Configuration: Soyuz-FG D15000-007 / ISS-7S.
  • Soyuz TMA-3 - . Call Sign: Ingul. Crew: Foale; Kaleri; Duque. Return Crew: Foale; Kaleri; Kuipers. Payload: Soyuz TMA s/n 213. Mass: 7,250 kg (15,980 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Foale; Kaleri; Duque; Kuipers. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: Korolev. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: ISS EO-8; ISS Cervantes; ISS EO-7. Spacecraft: Soyuz TMA. Duration: 194.77 days. Decay Date: 2004-04-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 28052 . COSPAR: 2003-047A. Apogee: 384 km (238 mi). Perigee: 376 km (233 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 92.20 min. The spacecraft carried the Expedition 8 crew of Mike Foale and Aleksandr Kaleri and the EP-5 (Cervantes) mission crewmember Pedro Duque. During the flight to the station spacecraft Commander was Aleksandr Kaleri . Soyuz TMA-3 docked with the Pirs module at 07:16 GMT on October 20. Once the EO-7 crew aboard the ISS was relieved, the roles switched, with Foale becoming the ISS Commander. Duque carried out out 24 experiments in the fields of life and physical sciences, Earth observation, education and technology. The experiments were sponsored by the European Space Agency and Spain. After ten days in space, Duque returned to earth with the EO-7 crew of Malenchenko and Lu aboard Soyuz TMA-2.

2003 November 12 - .
  • Soyuz TMA-3A (cancelled) - . Crew: Dezhurov; Kuipers; Skripochka. Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Dezhurov; Kuipers; Skripochka. Agency: RAKA. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TMA-3A. Spacecraft: Soyuz TMA. Soyuz TMA-3 was originally to switch lifeboats on the International Space Station. The crew would have returned to earth in the Soyuz TMA-2 already docked to the station. After the Columbia disaster, the remaining shuttles were grounded. The Soyuz was then the only means of keeping the station manned. It was therefore decided that Soyuz TMA-3 would fly with the skeleton crew of Foale and Kaleri.

2004 April 19 - . 03:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz FG. LV Configuration: Soyuz-FG Zh15000-009.
  • Soyuz TMA-4 - . Call Sign: Altair. Crew: Fincke; Padalka; Kuipers. Return Crew: Fincke; Padalka; Shargin. Payload: Soyuz TMA s/n 214. Mass: 7,250 kg (15,980 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Fincke; Padalka; Kuipers; Shargin. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: Korolev. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: ISS EO-8; ISS EO-9; ISS Delta. Spacecraft: Soyuz TMA. Duration: 187.89 days. Decay Date: 2004-10-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 28228 . COSPAR: 2004-013A. Apogee: 367 km (228 mi). Perigee: 359 km (223 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.80 min. Soyuz TMA-4 was ISS transport mission ISS 8S and delivered the EO-9 caretaker crew of Gennadiy Padalka and Michael Fincke, together with the ESA/Netherlands Delta mission crewmember Andre Kuipers, to the Space Station. Soyuz TMA-4 docked with the nadir port on Zarya at 05:01 GMT on April 21 and the hatches to the ISS were opened at 06:30 GMT. Another gyro on the station had shut down prior to the docking and possibly would require a maintenance spacewalk to replace its failed electronics.

    After Soyuz TMA-5 docked with the ISS on October 16, the EO-9 crew handed activities over to the EO-10 crew.


May 2004 - .
  • Soyuz TMA-4A (cancelled) - . Crew: Musabayev; Schlegel. Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Musabayev; Schlegel. Agency: RAKA. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz TMA-4A. Spacecraft: Soyuz TMA. Soyuz TMA-4 was originally to switch lifeboats on the International Space Station. The crew would have returned to earth in the Soyuz TMA-3 already docked to the station. After the Columbia disaster, the remaining shuttles were grounded. The Soyuz was then the only means of keeping the station manned. It was therefore decided that Soyuz TMA-4 would fly with the skeleton crew of McArthur and Tokarev.

2004 October 14 - . 03:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz FG. LV Configuration: Soyuz-FG Zh15000-012.
  • Soyuz TMA-5 - . Call Sign: Tien Shan. Crew: Chiao; Sharipov; Shargin. Return Crew: Chiao; Sharipov; Vittori. Payload: Soyuz TMA s/n 215. Mass: 7,250 kg (15,980 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Chiao; Sharipov; Shargin; Vittori. Agency: RKA. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: ISS EO-10. Spacecraft: Soyuz TMA. Duration: 192.79 days. Decay Date: 2005-04-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 28444 . COSPAR: 2004-040A. Apogee: 359 km (223 mi). Perigee: 353 km (219 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.70 min. Soyuz TMA-5 docked with the Pirs module on October 16 at 0416 GMT. Aboard the spacecraft were the EO-10 crew of Sharipov and Chiao, and guest cosmonaut Shargin. After a week at the station, the EO-9 crew of Padalka and Fincke, together with Shargin, entered Soyuz TMA-4 at 18:14 GMT on October 23 and returned to earth. Chiao and Sharipov continued as the ISS skeleton station crew.

2005 April 15 - . 00:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz FG. LV Configuration: Soyuz-FG Zh15000-014 / ISS-10S.
  • Soyuz TMA-6 - . Call Sign: Basalt. Crew: Krikalyov; Phillips; Vittori. Return Crew: Krikalyov; Phillips; Olsen. Payload: Soyuz TMA s/n 216. Mass: 7,250 kg (15,980 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Vittori; Krikalyov; Phillips; Olsen. Agency: RKA. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: ISS EO-11; ISS EP-8; ISS EO-10. Spacecraft: Soyuz TMA. Duration: 179.02 days. Decay Date: 2005-10-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 28640 . COSPAR: 2005-013A. Apogee: 360 km (220 mi). Perigee: 350 km (210 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.60 min. The Soyuz TMA-6 docked with International Space Station's Pirs module at 02:20 GMT on April 17. Commander of the long-duration EO-11 crew was Russian cosmonaut Sergey Krikalyov. Flight engineer and science officer was American astronaut John Phillips. Italian Roberto Vittori accompanied the EO-10 crew aboard Soyuz TMA-6 to the station on the European Space Agency EP-8 Eneide mission.

2005 October 1 - . 03:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz FG. LV Configuration: Soyuz-FG Zh15000-017 / ISS-11S.
  • Soyuz TMA-7 - . Call Sign: Rassvet. Crew: Tokarev; McArthur; Olsen. Return Crew: Tokarev; McArthur; Pontes. Payload: Soyuz TMA s/n 217. Mass: 7,250 kg (15,980 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Tokarev; McArthur; Olsen; Pontes. Agency: RAKA; NASA; Space Adentures. Manufacturer: Korolev. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: ISS EO-11; ISS EO-12; ISS EP-10. Spacecraft: Soyuz TMA. Duration: 189.83 days. Decay Date: 2006-04-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 28877 . COSPAR: 2005-039A. Apogee: 348 km (216 mi). Perigee: 347 km (215 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.50 min. Launch delayed from September 27. Soyuz TMA-7 docked with the International Space Station at 05:27 GMT on 3 October, bringing the long duration EO-12 crew of (McArthur, Commander; Tokarev, Flight Engineer) and space tourist Olsen. McArthur, Tokarev and Pontes (brought to the station aboard Soyuz TMA-8) transferred to TMA-7 on April 8, 2006, closing the hatches at 17:15 GMT and undocking from Zvezda at 20:28 GMT, leaving Vinogradov and Williams from Soyuz TMA-8 as the Expedition 13 in charge of the station. Soyuz TMA-7 fired its engines at 22:58 GMT for the deorbit burn and landed in Kazakhstan at 23:48 GMT.

2006 March 30 - . 02:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz FG. LV Configuration: Soyuz-FG P15000-018.
  • Soyuz TMA-8 - . Call Sign: Carat. Crew: Vinogradov; Williams, Jeffrey; Pontes. Return Crew: Vinogradov; Williams, Jeffrey; Ansari. Payload: Soyuz TMA s/n 218. Mass: 7,250 kg (15,980 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Vinogradov; Williams, Jeffrey; Pontes; Ansari. Agency: RAKA; NASA. Manufacturer: Korolev. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: ISS EO-13; ISS EO-12; ISS EP-10. Spacecraft: Soyuz TMA. Duration: 182.95 days. Decay Date: 2006-09-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 28996 . COSPAR: 2006-009A. Apogee: 349 km (216 mi). Perigee: 336 km (208 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.40 min. Soyuz TMA-8 docked with the Zarya nadir port of the ISS at 04:19 GMT on April 1. It undocked from Zarya on 28 September at 21:53 GMT, with the return crew of Vinogradov, Williams and space tourist Ansari aboard. It landed in Kazakhstan at 01:13 GMT on 29 September.

2006 September 18 - . 04:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz FG. LV Configuration: Soyuz-FG Ts15000-023.
  • Soyuz TMA-9 - . Call Sign: Vostok. Crew: Tyurin; Lopez-Alegria; Ansari. Return Crew: Tyurin; Lopez-Alegria; Simonyi. Payload: Soyuz TMA s/n 219. Mass: 7,250 kg (15,980 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Ansari; Tyurin; Lopez-Alegria; Simonyi. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: Korolev. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: ISS EO-14; ISS EO-13. Spacecraft: Soyuz TMA. Duration: 215.35 days. Decay Date: 2007-04-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 29400 . COSPAR: 2006-040A. Apogee: 348 km (216 mi). Perigee: 330 km (200 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.30 min. Carried the Expedition 14 crew and space tourist Anousheh Ansari to the International Space Station. Ansari replaced tourist Daisuke Enomoto, who was removed from flight status by the Russians just 28 days before the flight. Docked at the Zvezda port of the station at 05:21 GMT on September 20. On 21 April 2007, Lopez-Alegria, Tyurin and space tourist Charles Simonyi (who was taken to the station aboard Soyuz TMA-10) boarded Soyuz TMA-9, separated from the ISS, conducted retrofire, and landed in Kazakhstan at 12:31 GMT.

2007 April 7 - . 17:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz FG. LV Configuration: Soyuz-FG 019.
  • Soyuz TMA-10 - . Call Sign: Pulsar. Crew: Yurchikhin; Kotov; Simonyi. Return Crew: Yurchikhin; Kotov; Muszaphar. Payload: Soyuz TMA s/n 220 / ISS-14S. Mass: 7,200 kg (15,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Simonyi; Yurchikhin; Kotov; Muszaphar. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: Korolev. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: ISS EO-15; ISS EP-12. Spacecraft: Soyuz TMA. Duration: 196.71 days. Decay Date: 2007-10-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 31100 . COSPAR: 2007-008A. Apogee: 341 km (211 mi). Perigee: 330 km (200 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.20 min. Carried the Expedition 15 crew and space tourist Charles Simonyi to the International Space Station. Soyuz TMA-10 docked at the Zarya port of the International Space Station at 19:10 GMT on 9 April. It undocked from Zarya at 19:20 GMT on Sep 27 September and docked at the Zvezda port at 19:47 GMT to clear Zarya for Soyuz TMA-10.

    The EO-15 crew and EP-13 space tourist Shukor (brought to the station by Soyuz TMA-11) boarded Soyuz TM-10 and undocked from the Zvezda port at 07:14 GMT on 21 October. The re-entry burn began at 09:47 and was normal. But afterwards, due to failure of an explosive bolt, the Soyuz service module remained connected to the re-entry capsule. The Soyuz tumbled, then began re-entry with the forward hatch taking the re-entry heating, until the connecting strut burned through. The Soyuz the righted itself with the heat shield taking the heating, but defaulted to an 8.6 G ballistic re-entry, landing 340 km short of the aim point at 10:36 GMT. Improved procedures after the ballistic re-entry of Soyuz TMA-1 meant a helicopter recovery crew reached the capsule only 20 minutes after thumpdown. However the true nature of the failure was concealed from the world until the same thing happened on Soyuz TMA-11.


2007 October 10 - . 13:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz FG. LV Configuration: Soyuz-FG Ts15000-020.
  • Soyuz TMA-11 - . Call Sign: Agat. Crew: Whitson; Malenchenko; Muszaphar. Payload: Soyuz TMA s/n 221 / ISS 15S. Mass: 7,200 kg (15,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Whitson; Malenchenko; Muszaphar. Agency: RKA. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: ISS EO-16; ISS EP-13. Spacecraft: Soyuz TMA. Duration: 191.80 days. Decay Date: 2008-04-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 32256 . COSPAR: 2007-045A. Apogee: 344 km (213 mi). Perigee: 340 km (210 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.40 min. Soyuz TMA-11 delivered the EO-16 crew of Whitson and Malenchenko and EP-13 space tourist Shukor to the International Space Station. The Soyuz docked at the Zarya module at 14:50 GMT on 12 October. Whitson was EO-16 commander, with third astronaut Clay Anderson remaining aboard the station after the EO-15 crew and Shukor returned to earth on Soyuz TMA-10.

    Malenchenko and Whitson, together with visiting Korean astronaut Yi, who had been delivered to the ISS by Soyuz TMA-12, undocked from the station aboard Soyuz TMA-11 at 05:06 GMT on 19 April 2008. Following the deorbit burn at 07:40 GMT the aft service module of the Soyuz failed to separate and the spacecraft began re-entry in a reversed position, with the forward hatch taking the initial re-entry heating. As was the case with Soyuz 5 in 1970, the connections with the service module finally melted away, and the freed capsule righted itself aerodynamically with the heat shield taking the brunt of the re-entry heating. However the crew experienced a rough ride, a ballistic re-entry of over 8 G's force, smoke in the cabin, a failure of the soft landing system, and a very hard landing. They landed 470 km short of the target point at 50 deg 31" N, 61 deg 7" E at 08:29 GMT. A small grass fire was started at the landing point and the injured crew had to be helped from the capsule by passers-by. Malenchenko and Whitson suffered no permanent injury, but Yi was hit by Whitson's personal effects bag on impact and required physical therapy for neck and spine injuries.


2008 April 8 - . 11:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz FG. LV Configuration: Soyuz FG s/n 1731.
  • Soyuz TMA-12 - . Call Sign: Eridanus. Crew: Volkov, Sergey; Kononenko, O D; Yi So-yeon. Return Crew: Volkov, Sergey; Kononenko, O D; Garriott, Richard. Payload: Soyuz TMA s/n 222. Mass: 7,200 kg (15,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Volkov, Sergey; Kononenko, O D; Yi So-yeon; Garriott, Richard. Agency: RKA. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: ISS EO-16; ISS EO-17; ISS EO-16-3. Spacecraft: Soyuz TMA. Duration: 198.54 days. Decay Date: 2008-04-19 08:29:00 . USAF Sat Cat: 32756 . COSPAR: 2008-015A. Apogee: 343 km (213 mi). Perigee: 336 km (208 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.30 min. Launched the EO-17 long-duration crew to replace the EO-16 crew. The commander was the son of cosmonaut Aleksandr Volkov. Also aboard was Oleg Kononenko (no relation to the 1970's Buran pilot of the same name) and Korean astronaut Yi Soyeon. Soyuz TMA-12 docked at the Pirs module of the International Space Station on 2008 Apr 10 at 12:57 GMT on 10 April. Volkov and Kononenko stayed aboard as the EO-17 long duration crew. Yi returned to earth with the EO-16 crew aboard Soyuz TMA-11. Soyuz TMA-12 undocked on 24 October at 00:16 GMT with the EO-17 crew of Kononenko and Volkov, plus space tourist Richard Garriott, aboard. They landed safely at 03:37 GMT.

2008 October 12 - . 07:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz FG. LV Configuration: Soyuz FG s/n 1736.
2009 March 26 - . 11:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz FG. LV Configuration: Soyuz-FG s/n 1741.
  • Soyuz TMA-14 - . Call Sign: Altair. Crew: Padalka; Barratt; Simonyi. Payload: Soyuz TMA s/n 224. Mass: 7,250 kg (15,980 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RKA. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: ISS EO-19. Spacecraft: Soyuz TMA. Duration: 198.66 days. Decay Date: 2009-10-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 34669 . COSPAR: 2009-015A. Apogee: 354 km (219 mi). Perigee: 344 km (213 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.50 min. Summary: Delivered EO-19 crew and space tourist Simonyi to ISS; returned EO-19 crew and space tourist Laliberte to earth on 11 October 2009 at 04:32 GMT..

2009 May 27 - . 10:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz FG. LV Configuration: Soyuz-FG s/n 1745.
  • Soyuz TMA-15 - . Call Sign: Parus. Crew: Romanenko, Roman; De Winne; Thirsk. Payload: Soyuz TMA s/n 225. Mass: 7,250 kg (15,980 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RKA. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: ISS EO-20; ISS EO-19. Spacecraft: Soyuz TMA. Duration: 187.86 days. Decay Date: 2009-12-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 35010 . COSPAR: 2009-030A. Apogee: 354 km (219 mi). Perigee: 344 km (213 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.50 min. Summary: Delivered EO-20 crew to the ISS. Returned to earth 1 December 2009..

2009 September 30 - . 07:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz FG. LV Configuration: Soyuz-FG s/n 1748.
  • Soyuz TMA-16 - . Call Sign: Bort. Crew: Surayev; Williams, Jeffrey; Laliberte. Payload: Soyuz TMA s/n 226. Mass: 7,250 kg (15,980 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RKA. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: ISS EO-21; ISS EO-20; ISS EO-19. Spacecraft: Soyuz TMA. Duration: 169.17 days. Decay Date: 2010-03-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 35940 . COSPAR: 2009-053A. Apogee: 352 km (218 mi). Perigee: 342 km (212 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.50 min. Summary: Docked with the International Space Station at 08:35 GMT on 2 October. Carried the EO-21 crew of Suraev and Williams, and space tourist Guy Laliberte due to the station. Surayev and Williams landed aboard Soyuz TMA-16 in Kazakhstan on 18 March 2010..

2009 December 20 - . 21:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U. LV Configuration: Soyuz 11A511U s/n 1752.
  • Soyuz TMA-17 - . Call Sign: Pulsar. Crew: Kotov; Creamer; Noguchi. Backup Crew: Wheelock; Shkaplerov; Furukawa. Payload: Soyuz 7K-STMA s/n 227 / ISS-21S. Mass: 7,250 kg (15,980 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Kotov; Creamer; Noguchi. Agency: RKA. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: ISS EO-22; ISS EO-21. Spacecraft: Soyuz TMA. Duration: 163.23 days. Decay Date: 2010-06-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 36129 . COSPAR: 2009-074A. Apogee: 351 km (218 mi). Perigee: 336 km (208 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.40 min. Summary: Docked with Zarya port of ISS at 22:48 GMT on 22 December. Undocked at 0:04 GMT on 2 June 2010 and landed in Kazakhstan at 03:25 GMT..

2010 April 2 - . 04:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz FG. LV Configuration: Soyuz-FG s/n 1754.
  • Soyuz TMA-18 - . Call Sign: Cliff. Crew: Skvortsov, Aleksandr; Korniyenko; Caldwell. Backup Crew: Borisenko, Andrei; Samokutyayev; Kelly, Scott. Payload: Soyuz 7K-STMA s/n 228. Mass: 7,200 kg (15,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RKA. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: ISS EO-23; ISS EO-22. Spacecraft: Soyuz TMA. Duration: 176.05 days. Decay Date: 2010-04-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 36505 . COSPAR: 2010-011A. Apogee: 361 km (224 mi). Perigee: 350 km (210 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.60 min. ISS EO-23. The crew first attempted to depart the ISS on 24 September. However the latches between the Soyuz and the station failed to release. Return to earth the next day was successful, with undocking at 02:03 GMT; deorbit burn at 04:31 GMT; and landing in Kazakhstan at 05:23 GMT.

2010 June 15 - . 21:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz FG. LV Configuration: Soyuz-FG s/n 1757.
  • Soyuz TMA-19 - . Call Sign: Olympus. Crew: Yurchikhin; Wheelock; Walker, Shannon. Backup Crew: Kondratiyev, Dmitry; Nespoli; Coleman. Payload: Soyuz 7K-STMA s/n 229. Mass: 7,200 kg (15,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RKA. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: ISS EO-24; ISS EO-23. Spacecraft: Soyuz TMA. Duration: 163.30 days. Decay Date: 2010-11-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 36603 . COSPAR: 2010-029A. Apogee: 361 km (224 mi). Perigee: 350 km (210 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.60 min. ISS EO-24 crew. The return to earth was reported advanced four days to avoid coinciding with an OSCE conference in Kazakhstan. The crew undocked from the Rassvet module of the ISS at 01:23 GMT on 26 November 2010. There was a leak in the descent module, but ground controllers concluded the return to earth could be conducted safely. The Soyuz made its deorbit burn at 03:55 GMT and landed safely in Kazakhstan at 04:46 GMT.

2010 October 7 - . 23:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz FG.
  • Soyuz TMA-01M - . Call Sign: Ingul. Crew: Kaleri; Skripochka; Kelly, Scott. Payload: Soyuz TMA-01M. Nation: Russia. Agency: RKA. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: ISS EO-25; ISS EO-24. Spacecraft: Soyuz TMA. Duration: 159.78 days. Decay Date: 2011-03-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 37183 . COSPAR: 2010-052A. Apogee: 355 km (220 mi). Perigee: 350 km (210 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.60 min. Summary: ISS EO-25 crew. The Soyuz docked at the Poisk module of the ISS at 00:01 GMT on 10 October. The crew entered the spacecraft and undocked at 04:27 GMT on 16 March 2011. Following retrofire and re-entry they landed safely in Kazakhstan at 07:53 GMT..

2010 December 15 - . 19:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz FG.
  • Soyuz TMA-20 - . Call Sign: Varyag. Crew: Kondratiyev, Dmitry; Nespoli; Coleman. Backup Crew: Ivanishin; Furukawa; Fossum. Payload: Soyuz 7K-STMA s/n 230. Nation: Russia. Agency: RKA. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: ISS EO-26; ISS EO-25. Spacecraft: Soyuz TMA. Duration: 159.30 days. Decay Date: 2011-05-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 37254 . COSPAR: 2010-067A. Apogee: 355 km (220 mi). Perigee: 350 km (210 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.60 min. ISS EO-26 crew. Docked at the Rassvet module of the ISS at 20:11 GMT on 17 December. The crew boarded Soyuz TMA-20 and undocked at 21:35 GMT on 23 May 2011. They pulled back 200 m from the station, then took comprehensive photography of the station until 22:17 as it rotated before them. After departure from the visinity of the station, the Soyuz fired its engines at 01:36 GMT on 24 May to start the descent into the atmosphere. The orbital module and service modules separated from the descent module at 02:01 GMT. The crew landed safely in Kazakhstan at 02:27 GMT.

2011 April 4 - . 22:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz FG.
  • Soyuz TMA-21 - . Call Sign: Tarkhany / Gagarin. Crew: Samokutyayev; Borisenko; Garan. Backup Crew: Shkaplerov; Ivanishin; Burbank. Payload: Soyuz 7K-STMA s/n 231. Nation: Russia. Agency: RKA. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: ISS EO-27; ISS EO-26. Spacecraft: Soyuz TMA. Duration: 164.24 days. Decay Date: 2011-09-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 37382 . COSPAR: 2011-012A. Apogee: 347 km (215 mi). Perigee: 343 km (213 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.40 min. ISS EO-27 crew. The Soyuz docked at the Poisk module of the ISS at 23:09 GMT on 6 April, and undocked at 00:38 GMT on 16 September 2011, eight days later than planned due to the Progress M-11M launch failure. A dropout of communications after the reentry burn caused concern, but the crew landed safely in Kazakhstan at 03:59 GMT.

2011 June 7 - . 20:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz FG.
  • Soyuz TMA-02M - . Nation: Russia. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: ISS EO-28; ISS EO-27. Spacecraft: Soyuz TMA. USAF Sat Cat: 37633 . COSPAR: 2011-023A. Apogee: 403 km (250 mi). Perigee: 374 km (232 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 92.30 min. Summary: Carried the EO-28 crew to the station. Docked with the ISS at the Rassvet on 9 June at 21:18 GMT..

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