Encyclopedia Astronautica
Soyuz 7K-TM



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Soyuz ASTP in Orbit
Credit: NASA
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Soyuz ASTP
Unusual 1972 illustration of Soyuz ASTP without solar panels.
Credit: NASA
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Soyuz ASTP
Credit: © Mark Wade
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Soyuz ASTP Cutaway
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Soyuz ASTP in Orbit
Soyuz ASTP in Orbit 4
Credit: NASA
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APAS-75 docking unit
APAS-75 docking unit as used in ASTP project.
Credit: Andy Salmon
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Soyuz ASTP in Orbit
Soyuz ASTP in Orbit 3
Credit: NASA
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Soyuz ASTP
Credit: © Mark Wade
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Soyuz ASTP SA
Cutaway of Soyuz re-entry capsule.
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Soyuz ASTP BO
Cutaway of Soyuz orbital module.
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Panel Soyuz 7K-OK
Control panel of the initial earth orbit version of Soyuz.
Credit: © Mark Wade
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Soyuz ASTP PO
Cutaway of Soyuz equipment / propulsion module.
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Soyuz ASTP
Credit: © Mark Wade
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Soyuz OM
Detailed cutaway of standard Soyuz orbital module, as flown on ASTP mission.
Credit: © Mark Wade
Russian manned spacecraft. 4 launches, 1974.04.03 (Cosmos 638) to 1975.07.15 (Soyuz 19 (ASTP)). The Soyuz 7K-T as modified for the docking with Apollo.

The spacecraft included some systems developed for the cancelled Soyuz S, including a new launch escape tower. Other changes included new lightweight solar panels to increase endurance; an androgynous universal docking mechanism in place of standard Soyuz male mechanism; unique radio aerials for common communications; optical docking targets for manual docking with Apollo; and modifications to the environmental control system to lower the cabin pressure to 0.68 atmospheres prior to docking with Apollo..

Crew Size: 2. Orbital Storage: 7.00 days. Habitable Volume: 9.00 m3. Spacecraft delta v: 215 m/s (705 ft/sec). Electric System: 8.00 kWh. Electric System: 0.50 average kW.

AKA: Soyuz M; 7K-TM/F/; 11F615A12.
Gross mass: 6,680 kg (14,720 lb).
Unfuelled mass: 6,180 kg (13,620 lb).
Height: 7.48 m (24.54 ft).
Span: 8.37 m (27.46 ft).
Thrust: 4.09 kN (919 lbf).
Specific impulse: 282 s.
First Launch: 1974.04.03.
Last Launch: 1975.07.15.
Number: 4 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
Associated Spacecraft
  • Soyuz ASTP SA Russian manned spacecraft module. 4 launches, 1974.04.03 (Cosmos 638) to 1975.07.15 (Soyuz 19 (ASTP)). Post-Soyuz 11 modification for crew of two in spacesuits. Reentry capsule. More...
  • Soyuz ASTP PAO Russian manned spacecraft module. 4 launches, 1974.04.03 (Cosmos 638) to 1975.07.15 (Soyuz 19 (ASTP)). Soyuz 7K-OK basic PAO service module with pump-fed main engines and separate RCS/main engine propellant feed system. Equipment-engine section. More...
  • Soyuz ASTP BO Russian manned spacecraft module. 4 launches, 1974.04.03 (Cosmos 638) to 1975.07.15 (Soyuz 19 (ASTP)). Universal docking system designed for ASTP with three petaled locating system and internal transfer tunnel. No automated rendezvous and docking system. Living section. More...

See also
  • Soyuz The Russian Soyuz spacecraft has been the longest-lived, most adaptable, and most successful manned spacecraft design. In production for fifty years, more than 240 have been built and flown on a wide range of missions. The design will remain in use with the international space station well into the 21st century, providing the only manned access to the station after the retirement of the shuttle in 2011. More...

Associated Flights
  • Soyuz 16 Crew: Filipchenko, Rukavishnikov. ASTP Manned Test Flight. Check-out of the Soyuz systems modified for Apollo-Soyuz docking in space. Backup crew: Andreyev, Dzhanibekov.Support crew: Ivanchenkov, Romanenko. More...
  • Soyuz 19 (ASTP) Crew: Kubasov, Leonov. First docking between two spacecraft launched from different nations. Culmination of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project, a post-moon race 'goodwill' flight to test a US/Soviet common docking system. Backup crew: Filipchenko, Rukavishnikov.Support crew: Andreyev, Dzhanibekov, Ivanchenkov, Romanenko. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Soyuz Russian orbital launch vehicle. The world's first ICBM became the most often used and most reliable launch vehicle in history. The original core+four strap-on booster missile had a small third stage added to produce the Vostok launch vehicle, with a payload of 5 metric tons. Addition of a larger third stage produced the Voskhod/Soyuz vehicle, with a payload over 6 metric tons. Using this with a fourth stage, the resulting Molniya booster placed communications satellites and early lunar and planetary probes in higher energy trajectories. By the year 2000 over 1,628 had been launched with an unmatched success rate of 97.5% for production models. Improved models providing commercial launch services for international customers entered service in the new millenium, and a new launch pad at Kourou was to be inaugurated in 2009. It appeared that the R-7 could easily still be in service 70 years after its first launch. More...
  • Soyuz 11A511U Russian standardised man-rated orbital launch vehicle derived from the original R-7 ICBM of 1957. It has been launched in greater numbers than any orbital launch vehicle in history. Not coincidentally, it has been the most reliable as well. After over 40 years service in Russia, ESA built a new launch pad at Kourou which will keep it in service from three launch sites in three countries well into the mid-21st Century. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Korolev Russian manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Korolev Design Bureau, Kaliningrad, Russia. More...
  • MOM Russian agency overseeing development of spacecraft. Ministry of General Machine Building (Moskva, Russia), Moscow, Russia. More...

Associated Programs
  • ASTP Apollo-Soyuz Test Project. Meetings began in 1969 between Russian and American representatives on a joint manned space mission. Ambitious plans for use of Skylab or Salyut space stations were not approved. Instead it was decided to develop a universal docking system for space rescue. A working group was set up in October 1970 and in May 1972 the USA/USSR Agreement was signed with launch to take place in 1975. D Bushuev and G Lanin were the technical directors of the Soviet-designed EPAS docking system program. 1600 experiments were conducted in developing the system. More...

Associated Propellants
  • Nitric acid/Hydrazine Drawing on the German World War II Wasserfall rocket, nitric acid (HNO3) became the early storable oxidiser of choice for missiles and upper stages of the 1950's. To overcome various problems with its use, it was necessary to combine the nitric acid with N2O4 and passivation compounds. These formulae were considered extremely secret at the time. By the late 1950's it was apparent that N2O4 by itself was a better oxidiser. Therefore nitric acid was almost entirely replaced by pure N2O4 in storable liquid fuel rocket engines developed after 1960. Hydrazine (N2H4) found early use as a fuel, but it was quickly replaced by UDMH. It is still used as a monopropellant for satellite station-keeping motors. More...

Bibliography
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Home Page (launch records), Harvard University, 1997-present. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • JPL Mission and Spacecraft Library, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1997. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Semenov, Yuri P Editor, Raketno-kosmicheskaya korporatsiya 'Energia' imeni S P Koroleva, Moscow, Russia, 1996.
  • Clark, Philip, The Soviet Manned Space Program, Salamander Books, London, 1988.
  • Furniss, Tim, Manned Spaceflight Log, Jane's, London, 1986.
  • Oberg, James, Red Star in Orbit, Random House, New York, 1981.
  • Turnill, Reginald,, The Observer's Spaceflight Directory, Frederick Warne, London, 1978.
  • Semenov, Yu. P., S P Korolev Space Corporation Energia, RKK Energia, 1994.
  • "Fuel, Sensors Limit Soyuz Maneuvering", Aviation Week and Space Technology, 1974-01-28, page 36.
  • "Soyuz Design Details Revealed", Aviation Week and Space Technology, 1974-01-21, page 38.
  • "Docked Soyuz Spacecrft Are Displayed in Moscow", Aviation Week and Space Technology, 1970-05-18, page 66.
  • "Soyuz Spacecraft Shown by Soviets at Japan's Expo 70", Aviation Week and Space Technology, 1970-07-25, page 55.
  • Chertok, Boris Yevseyevich, Raketi i lyudi, Mashinostroenie, Moscow, 1994-1999.. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Kamanin, N P, Skritiy kosmos, Infortext, Moscow, 1995.
  • Ezell, Edward Clinton and Ezell, Linda Neuman, The Partnership: A History of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project, NASA History Series SP-4209, 1978.

Associated Launch Sites
  • Baikonur Russia's largest cosmodrome, the only one used for manned launches and with facilities for the larger Proton, N1, and Energia launch vehicles. The spaceport ended up on foreign soil after the break-up of Soviet Union. The official designations NIIP-5 and GIK-5 are used in official Soviet histories. It was also universally referred to as Tyuratam by both Soviet military staff and engineers, and the US intelligence agencies. Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union the Russian Federation has insisted on continued use of the old Soviet 'public' name of Baikonur. In its Kazakh (Kazak) version this is rendered Baykonur. More...

Soyuz 7K-TM Chronology


1970 October 14 - .
  • Contacts on join USA/USSR docking system. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Keldysh; Nikolayev; Sevastyanov. Program: ASTP. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-TM. Communist Party Meeting at the cosmonaut centre. Keldysh calls later. Six specialists are to be sent to the United States to discuss design of a common USA/USSR docking system. Kamanin yet again goes through the correct answers and prepared speeches to be given to the press by Nikolayev and Sevastyanov on their visit to West Germany.

1972 January 1 - . LV Family: N1; RT-2.
  • TsKBEM reorganised - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Mishin; Dorofeyev; Bushuyev; Semenov; Shabarov. Program: Lunar L3; Soyuz; Almaz. Spacecraft: LK; Soyuz 7K-LOK; Soyuz 7K-TM; Soyuz 7K-T; Soyuz 7K-S; Soyuz 7K-OK; MKBS; Mars 5NM. TsKBEM was given a completely new structure as a result of the findings of the expert commissions on the disasters for the previous year, Mishin remained as the Chief Designer for the organisation, but each programme now had its own chief designer:

    • N1: Boris Dorofeyev
    • 8K98P solid propellant ICBM: Igor Sadovskiy
    • N1 payloads: Vladimir Brorov [check]
    • Soyuz 7K-TM, or Soyuz M, for Soyuz-Apollo: Konstantin Bushuyev
    • Soyuz 7K-T: Yuri Semenov
    • Soyuz 7K-S or Soyuz VI: Yevgeni Shabarov
    Additional Details: here....

1974 April 3 - . 07:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 638 - . Payload: Soyuz ASTP s/n 71-EPSA. Mass: 6,570 kg (14,480 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: ASTP. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-TM. Duration: 9.89 days. Decay Date: 1974-04-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 7234 . COSPAR: 1974-018A. Apogee: 309 km (192 mi). Perigee: 187 km (116 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Unmanned Soyuz test flight. Recovered April 13, 1974 5:05 GMT. Soyuz ASTP Test.
    Maneuver Summary:
    190km X 309km orbit to 190km X 266km orbit. Delta V: 12 m/s
    190km X 266km orbit to 240km X 300km orbit. Delta V: 23 m/s
    240km X 300km orbit to 258km X 274km orbit. Delta V: 12 m/s
    Total Delta V: 47 m/s.
    Officially: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space.

1974 August 12 - . 06:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 672 - . Payload: Soyuz ASTP s/n 72-EPSA. Mass: 6,570 kg (14,480 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: ASTP. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-TM. Duration: 5.94 days. Decay Date: 1974-08-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 7413 . COSPAR: 1974-064A. Apogee: 226 km (140 mi). Perigee: 222 km (137 mi). Inclination: 51.7000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. ASTP precursor. Recovered August 18, 1974 5:02 GMT. Soyuz ASTP test.
    Maneuver Summary:
    195km X 305km orbit to 195km X 221km orbit. Delta V: 24 m/s
    195km X 221km orbit to 223km X 223km orbit. Delta V: 8 m/s
    231km X 231km orbit to 231km X 231km orbit. Delta V: 1 m/s
    223km X 223km orbit to 231km X 231km orbit. Delta V: 4 m/s
    231km X 231km orbit to 227km X 237km orbit. Delta V: 2 m/s
    Total Delta V: 39 m/s.
    Officially: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space.

1974 December 2 - . 09:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Soyuz 16 - . Call Sign: Buran (Snowstorm ). Crew: Filipchenko; Rukavishnikov. Backup Crew: Andreyev; Dzhanibekov. Support Crew: Ivanchenkov; Romanenko. Payload: Soyuz ASTP s/n 73-EPSA. Mass: 6,800 kg (14,900 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Filipchenko; Rukavishnikov; Andreyev; Dzhanibekov; Ivanchenkov; Romanenko. Agency: MOM. Program: ASTP. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 16. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-TM. Duration: 5.93 days. Decay Date: 1974-12-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 7561 . COSPAR: 1974-096A. Apogee: 291 km (180 mi). Perigee: 184 km (114 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. ASTP Manned Test Flight. Check-out of the Soyuz space craft's on-board systems which had been modernized to meet the requirements of the 1975 joint flight in accordance with the programme of the Soviet-United States experiment; conduct of scientific and technical investigations.

1975 July 15 - . 12:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Soyuz 19 (ASTP) - . Call Sign: Soyuz (Union ). Crew: Kubasov; Leonov. Backup Crew: Filipchenko; Rukavishnikov. Support Crew: Andreyev; Dzhanibekov; Ivanchenkov; Romanenko. Payload: Soyuz ASTP s/n 75 (EPSA). Mass: 6,790 kg (14,960 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Kubasov; Leonov; Filipchenko; Rukavishnikov; Andreyev; Dzhanibekov; Ivanchenkov; Romanenko. Agency: MOM. Program: ASTP. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 19 (ASTP); Apollo (ASTP). Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-TM. Duration: 5.94 days. Decay Date: 1975-07-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 8030 . COSPAR: 1975-065A. Apogee: 220 km (130 mi). Perigee: 186 km (115 mi). Inclination: 51.8000 deg. Period: 88.50 min. Soyuz 19 initial orbital parameters were 220.8 by 185.07 kilometres, at the desired inclination of 51.80, while the period of the first orbit was 88.6 minutes. On 17 July the two spacecraft docked. The crew members rotated between the two spacecraft and conducted various mainly ceremonial activities. Leonov was on the American side for 5 hours, 43 minutes, while Kubasov spent 4:57 in the command and docking modules.

    After being docked for nearly 44 hours, Apollo and Soyuz parted for the first time and were station-keeping at a range of 50 meters. The Apollo crew placed its craft between Soyuz and the sun so that the diameter of the service module formed a disk which blocked out the sun. After this experiment Apollo moved towards Soyuz for the second docking.

    Three hours later Apollo and Soyuz undocked for the second and final time. The spacecraft moved to a 40 m station-keeping distance so that an ultraviolet absorption experiment could be performed. With all the joint flight activities completed, the ships went on their separate ways.


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