Encyclopedia Astronautica
Spacebus 100


French communications satellite. 12 launches, 1975.08.26 (Symphonie 2) to 1994.01.24 (Eutelsat II F5). 3-axis stabilized using bipropellant thrusters (750 kg propellant - unified with apogee insertion and maneuvering propulsion) and momentum wheels.

Solar arrays generated 2.0 kW at end of life.

Gross mass: 866 kg (1,909 lb).
Payload: 130 kg (280 lb).
Height: 2.25 m (7.37 ft).
Span: 20.70 m (67.90 ft).
Thrust: 392 N (88 lbf).
First Launch: 1975.08.27.
Last Launch: 1994.01.24.
Number: 12 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
See also
  • Ariane First successful European commercial launch vehicle, developed from L3S Europa launch vehicle replacement design. Development of the Ariane 1 was authorised in July 1973, took eight years, and cost 2 billion 1986 Euros. More...
  • Atlas The Atlas rocket, originally developed as America's first ICBM, was the basis for most early American space exploration and was that country's most successful medium-lift commercial launch vehicle. It launched America's first astronaut into orbit; the first generations of spy satellites; the first lunar orbiters and landers; the first probes to Venus, Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, and Saturn; and was America's most successful commercial launcher of communications satellites. Its innovative stage-and-a-half and 'balloon tank' design provided the best dry-mass fraction of any launch vehicle ever built. It was retired in 2004 after 576 launches in a 47-year career. More...
  • Delta The Delta launch vehicle was America's longest-lived, most reliable, and lowest-cost space launch vehicle. Development began in 1955 and it continued in service in the 21st Century despite numerous candidate replacements. More...
  • Shuttle The manned reusable space system which was designed to slash the cost of space transport and replace all expendable launch vehicles. It did neither, but did keep NASA in the manned space flight business for 30 years. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Atlas The Atlas rocket, originally developed as America's first ICBM, was the basis for most early American space exploration and was that country's most successful medium-lift commercial launch vehicle. It launched America's first astronaut into orbit; the first generations of spy satellites; the first lunar orbiters and landers; the first probes to Venus, Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, and Saturn; and was America's most successful commercial launcher of communications satellites. Its innovative stage-and-a-half and 'balloon tank' design provided the best dry-mass fraction of any launch vehicle ever built. It was retired in 2004 after 576 launches in a 47-year career. More...
  • Delta American orbital launch vehicle. The Delta launch vehicle was America's longest-lived, most reliable, and lowest-cost space launch vehicle. Delta began as Thor, a crash December 1955 program to produce an intermediate range ballistic missile using existing components, which flew thirteen months after go-ahead. Fifteen months after that, a space launch version flew, using an existing upper stage. The addition of solid rocket boosters allowed the Thor core and Able/Delta upper stages to be stretched. Costs were kept down by using first and second-stage rocket engines surplus to the Apollo program in the 1970's. Continuous introduction of new 'existing' technology over the years resulted in an incredible evolution - the payload into a geosynchronous transfer orbit increasing from 68 kg in 1962 to 3810 kg by 2002. Delta survived innumerable attempts to kill the program and replace it with 'more rationale' alternatives. By 2008 nearly 1,000 boosters had flown over a fifty-year career, and cancellation was again announced. More...
  • Delta 2914 American orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 9 x Castor 2 + 1 x ELT Thor/RS-27 + 1 x Delta P /TR-201 + 1 x Star 37E More...
  • Ariane French orbital launch vehicle. First successful European commercial launch vehicle, developed from L3S Europa launch vehicle replacement design. Development of the Ariane 1 was authorised in July 1973, took eight years, and cost 2 billion 1986 Euros. More...
  • Ariane 2/3 French orbital launch vehicle. Improved version of the Ariane 1. It featured increased thrust first and second stage engines, a 25% stretched third stage, 4 seconds specific impulse improvement in the third stage, a larger internal payload fairing volume, and introduced the Sylda payload carrier for dual payloads. The Ariane 3 version added two solid rocket motor strap-ons. Development was authorised in July 1980 and had a total cost of 144 million 1986 Euros. More...
  • Shuttle American winged orbital launch vehicle. The manned reusable space system which was designed to slash the cost of space transport and replace all expendable launch vehicles. It did neither, but did keep NASA in the manned space flight business for 30 years. Redesign of the shuttle with reliability in mind after the Challenger disaster reduced maximum payload to low earth orbit from 27,850 kg to 24,400 kg. More...
  • Delta 2 7000 American orbital launch vehicle. The Delta 7000 series used GEM-40 strap-ons with the Extra Extended Long Tank core, further upgraded with the RS-27A engine. More...
  • Ariane 3 French orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 2 x PAP solid rocket boosters + Ariane 2 core. More...
  • Ariane 44LP French orbital launch vehicle. Ariane 4 with 2 liquid rocket + 2 solid rocket strap-ons. More...
  • Ariane 44L French orbital launch vehicle. Ariane 4 with 4 liquid rocket strap-ons. More...
  • Delta 7925 American orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 9 x GEM-40 + 1 x EELT Thor/RS-27A + 1 x Delta K + 1 x Star 48B More...
  • Atlas II American orbital launch vehicle. The Atlas II booster was 2.7-meters longer than an Atlas I and included uprated Rocketdyne MA-5A engines. The Atlas I vernier engines were replaced with a hydrazine roll control system. The Centaur stage was stretched 0.9-meters compared to the Centaur I stage. Fixed foam insulation replaced Atlas I's jettisonable insulation panels. The original Atlas II model was developed to support the United States Air Force Medium Launch Vehicle II program. Its Centaur used RL10A-3-3A engines operating at an increased mixture ratio. The first Atlas II flew on 7 December 1991, successfully delivering AC-102/Eutelsat II F3 to orbit. More...
  • Delta 2000 American orbital launch vehicle. The Delta 2000 series used Castor 2 strap-ons together with an Extended Long Tank core equipped with the more powerful RS-27 engine. This engine was derived from surplus H-1 engines intended for the Saturn IB booster of the Apollo programme. The Delta P upper stage was built by Douglas and used surplus Apollo lunar module engines from TRW. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
Associated Programs
  • Eutelsat EUTELSAT regional geostationary telecommunication satellite for European countries. Operated by the EUTELSAT organization. More...

Associated Propellants
  • N2O4/MMH Nitrogen tetroxide became the storable liquid propellant of choice from the late 1950's. Monomethylhydrazine (CH3NHNH2) is a storable liquid fuel that found favour in the United States for use in orbital spacecraft engines. Its advantages in comparison to UDMH are higher density and slightly higher performance. More...

Bibliography
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Home Page (launch records), Harvard University, 1997-present. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Krebs, Gunter, Gunter's Space Page, University of Frankfurt, 1996. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • JPL Mission and Spacecraft Library, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1997. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Lockheed Martin Coporation, Atlas Family Fact Sheets, September 1998.. Web Address when accessed: here.

Associated Launch Sites
  • Cape Canaveral America's largest launch center, used for all manned launches. Today only six of the 40 launch complexes built here remain in use. Located at or near Cape Canaveral are the Kennedy Space Center on Merritt Island, used by NASA for Saturn V and Space Shuttle launches; Patrick AFB on Cape Canaveral itself, operated the US Department of Defense and handling most other launches; the commercial Spaceport Florida; the air-launched launch vehicle and missile Drop Zone off Mayport, Florida, located at 29.00 N 79.00 W, and an offshore submarine-launched ballistic missile launch area. All of these take advantage of the extensive down-range tracking facilities that once extended from the Cape, through the Caribbean, South Atlantic, and to South Africa and the Indian Ocean. More...
  • Kourou After the agreement with newly independent Algeria for France to evacuate their launch sites in that country, a location near Biscarosse was selected for French missile testing. However since only launches westwards across the Bay of Biscay could be made from this site, it was unsuitable for France's Diamant orbital launch vehicle. After reviewing 14 potential sites, a location in the South American French colony of Guiana was selected. This would allow over-water launches to a tremendous range of possible orbital inclinations -- from -100.5 deg to 1.5 deg. Being near the equator, it would provide the maximum assist from the earth's rotation for launches into equatorial orbits. The decision was formalized in April 1964 and in July 1966 ELDO chose the site for future launches of the Europa II launch vehicle. More...
  • Cape Canaveral LC36B Atlas V, Atlas launch complex. Atlas Centaur launch pad, in service from 1964 until the retirement of the launch vehicle. More...
  • Cape Canaveral LC17B Delta launch complex. Part of a dual launch pad complex built for the Thor ballistic missile program in 1956. Upgraded over the decades for use with Thor, Delta, Delta II, and Delta III launch vehicles, it remained in use for over half a century. More...
  • Cape Canaveral LC39A Shuttle, Saturn V launch complex. LC39A and LC39B, part of the Kennedy Space Center, were built on Merritt Island (north/northwest of the Cape) to support the Saturn V/Apollo lunar landing program. The sites were modified in the last half of the 1970s to support the manned Space Shuttle program. Construction began in December 1963. Complex 39A was completed on 4 October 1965. Complex 39A supported two unmanned and nine manned Saturn V/Apollo missions between 9 November 1967 and 8 December 1972. The site also supported the launch of the Skylab space station on 14 May 1973. Both complexes were modified to support Space Shuttle missions later on. Complex 39A supported the first Space Shuttle launch on 12 April 1981. More...
  • Cape Canaveral LC17A Delta launch complex. Part of a dual launch pad complex built for the Thor ballistic missile program in 1956. Pad 17A supported Thor, Delta, and Delta II launches into the 21st Century. More...

Spacebus 100 Chronology


1975 August 27 - . 01:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Delta 2914. LV Configuration: Delta 2914 594/D114.
  • Symphonie 2 - . Payload: Symphonie MV2. Mass: 398 kg (877 lb). Nation: France. Agency: CNES; DFVLR. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Spacebus 100. Completed Operations Date: 1985-01-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 8132 . COSPAR: 1975-077A. Apogee: 35,873 km (22,290 mi). Perigee: 35,866 km (22,286 mi). Inclination: 12.7000 deg. Period: 1,440.40 min. Jointly registered by the Federal Republic of Germany (A/AC.105/INF.329) and France (A/AC.105/INF.330). Symphonie flying model no II. Experimental telecommunications satellite. Orbit: geostationary. Also registered by the United Stat es in A/AC.105/INF.331 as 1975-77A, category C, with orbit 1427.4 min, 35364 x 35870 km x 0.0 deg Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Atlantic Ocean at 11 deg W in 1975-1985 As of 1 September 2001 located at 164.06 deg W drifting at 1.071 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 8 located at 167.97E drifting at 1.046W degrees per day.

1985 February 8 - . 23:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA1. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 3. LV Configuration: Ariane 3 V12.
  • Arabsat 1A - . Mass: 532 kg (1,172 lb). Nation: Arab States. Agency: Arabsat. Program: Arabsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Spacebus 100. Completed Operations Date: 1992-07-31 . USAF Sat Cat: 15560 . COSPAR: 1985-015A. Apogee: 35,753 km (22,215 mi). Perigee: 35,724 km (22,197 mi). Inclination: 8.2000 deg. Period: 1,433.70 min. Summary: Stationed at 19 deg E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 19 deg E in 1985-1991 As of 27 August 2001 located at 76.76 deg E drifting at 0.635 deg E per day. As of 2007 Feb 28 located at 87.85E drifting at 0.629E degrees per day..

1985 June 17 - . 11:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle 51-G.
  • Arabsat 1B - . Payload: Discovery F5 / Morelos 1 [PAM-D] / Telstar 303 [PA. Mass: 592 kg (1,305 lb). Nation: Arab States. Agency: Arabsat. Program: Arabsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Spacebus 100. Completed Operations Date: 1992-06-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 15825 . COSPAR: 1985-048C. Apogee: 35,746 km (22,211 mi). Perigee: 35,737 km (22,205 mi). Inclination: 1.9000 deg. Period: 1,433.80 min. Summary: Released by STS 51G 18 June 1985; 26 deg E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 26 deg E in 1985-1992 As of 5 September 2001 located at 135.45 deg W drifting at 0.555 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 165.57E drifting at 0.400E degrees per day..

1989 June 5 - . 22:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44L. LV Configuration: Ariane 44L V31.
  • DFS 1 - . Payload: Kopernikus 1. Mass: 1,416 kg (3,121 lb). Nation: Germany. Agency: Bundespost. Program: DFS. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Spacebus 100. Completed Operations Date: 1996-01-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 20041 . COSPAR: 1989-041B. Apogee: 35,889 km (22,300 mi). Perigee: 35,683 km (22,172 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Multipurpose communications; 23.5 deg E. Communications satellite, position 23.5E, Ariane 4 flight no 20. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 23 deg E in 1989-1993; 33 deg E in 1993-1995 As of 5 September 2001 located at 90.12 deg E drifting at 1.435 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 41.93E drifting at 1.416E degrees per day.

1990 July 24 - . 22:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44L. LV Configuration: Ariane 44L V37.
  • DFS 2 - . Payload: Kopernikus 2. Mass: 1,418 kg (3,126 lb). Nation: Germany. Agency: Bundespost. Program: DFS. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Spacebus 100. USAF Sat Cat: 20706 . COSPAR: 1990-063B. Apogee: 36,014 km (22,378 mi). Perigee: 35,965 km (22,347 mi). Inclination: 1.4000 deg. Period: 1,446.50 min. West German DBS; 28.5 deg E. Communications satellite, position 28.5E Ariane 4 flight no 37. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 28 deg E in 1990-1999 As of 30 August 2001 located at 32.30 deg E drifting at 0.451 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 128.29W drifting at 2.623W degrees per day.

1990 August 30 - . 22:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44LP. LV Configuration: Ariane 44LP V38.
  • Eutelsat II F1 - . Mass: 1,878 kg (4,140 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: Eutelsat. Program: Eutelsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Spacebus 100. USAF Sat Cat: 20777 . COSPAR: 1990-079B. Apogee: 35,806 km (22,248 mi). Perigee: 35,769 km (22,225 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.20 min. Stationed at 13 deg E. Telecommunications satellite. Registered by France in ST/SG/SER.E/234 and 239 until EUTELSAT can register the satellite. EUTELSAT is the European Telecommunications Satellite Organization. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 13 deg E in 1990-1998; 48 deg E in 1999. As of 26 August 2001 located at 48.45 deg E drifting at 0.011 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 6.45E drifting at 3.328W degrees per day.

1991 January 15 - . 23:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44L. LV Configuration: Ariane 44L V41.
  • Eutelsat II F2 - . Mass: 1,878 kg (4,140 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: Eutelsat. Program: Eutelsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Spacebus 100. USAF Sat Cat: 21056 . COSPAR: 1991-003B. Apogee: 35,814 km (22,253 mi). Perigee: 35,759 km (22,219 mi). Inclination: 2.2000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Stationed at 10 deg E. Telecommunications satellite. Registered by France in ST/SG/SER.E/234 and 239 until EUTELSAT can register the satellite. EUTELSAT is the European Telecommunications Satellite Organization. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 10 deg E in 1991-1999 12 deg W in 1999-2000 As of 4 September 2001 located at 12.60 deg W drifting at 0.009 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 28.49E drifting at 4.801W degrees per day.

1991 December 7 - . 22:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36B. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas II. LV Configuration: Atlas II AC-102 / Centaur II 8102.
  • Eutelsat II F3 - . Mass: 1,874 kg (4,131 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: Eutelsat. Program: Eutelsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Spacebus 100. USAF Sat Cat: 21803 . COSPAR: 1991-083A. Apogee: 35,802 km (22,246 mi). Perigee: 35,769 km (22,225 mi). Inclination: 2.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Stationed at 16 deg E. Telecommunications satellite. French registration 1991-8. Transfer orbit was 663 min, 200 x 36000 km x 7.0 deg. Registered by France in ST/SG/SER.E/249 until EUTELSAT can register the satellite. EUTELSAT is the European Telecommunications Satellite Organi zation. Launch vehicle put payload into supersynchronous earth orbit with IFR trajectory option. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 16 deg E in 1992-1998; 36 deg E in 1999. As of 1 September 2001 located at 21.51 deg E drifting at 0.017 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 74.40E drifting at 3.531W degrees per day.

1992 February 26 - . 23:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44L. LV Configuration: Ariane 44L V49.
  • Arabsat 1C - . Mass: 1,310 kg (2,880 lb). Nation: Arab States. Agency: Arabsat. Program: Arabsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Spacebus 100. USAF Sat Cat: 21894 . COSPAR: 1992-010B. Apogee: 35,808 km (22,250 mi). Perigee: 35,763 km (22,222 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Stationed at 31 deg E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 31 deg E in 1992-1997; 55 deg E in 1998-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 55.07 deg E drifting at 0.005 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 172.70E drifting at 5.710W degrees per day.

1992 July 9 - . 22:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44L. LV Configuration: Ariane 44L V51.
  • Eutelsat II F4 - . Mass: 1,877 kg (4,138 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: Eutelsat. Program: Eutelsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Spacebus 100. USAF Sat Cat: 22028 . COSPAR: 1992-041B. Apogee: 35,841 km (22,270 mi). Perigee: 35,806 km (22,248 mi). Inclination: 1.2000 deg. Period: 1,438.00 min. Summary: Stationed at 7 deg E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 7 deg E in 1992-1999; 10 deg E in 1999. As of 3 September 2001 located at 25.62 deg E drifting at 0.019 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 120.18E drifting at 4.301W degrees per day..

1992 October 12 - . 09:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Delta 7925. LV Configuration: Delta 7925 D215.
  • DFS 3 - . Payload: Kopernikus 3. Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: Germany. Agency: Bundespost. Program: DFS. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Spacebus 100. USAF Sat Cat: 22175 . COSPAR: 1992-066A. Apogee: 35,799 km (22,244 mi). Perigee: 35,773 km (22,228 mi). Inclination: 0.5000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Stationed at 33.5 deg E. Communication satellite. Longitude 33.5 deg E. Delta II flight no 212. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 31 deg E in 1992; 23 deg E in 1993-1999 As of 1 September 2001 located at 23.45 deg E drifting at 0.001 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 29.79E drifting at 1.955W degrees per day.

1994 January 24 - . 21:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44LP. LV Configuration: Ariane 44LP+ V63. FAILURE: Stage 3 turbopump overheated.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • Eutelsat II F5 - . Mass: 1,880 kg (4,140 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: Eutelsat. Program: Eutelsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Spacebus 100. Decay Date: 1994-01-24 . COSPAR: F940124A. Summary: Launched with Turksat 1..

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