Korolev Suborbital M
East German drawing of designs for said to be considered for a Soviet suborbital manned spacecraft. OKB-1 considered such a spacecraft in 1956, but it was decided to go directly to the orbital Vostok design. The East German drawings seem to correspond to a rocket of about 2.8 m diameter (such as the R-7 or R-9 ICBM's) while the 1956 Korolev designs were for the 1.65 m diameter R-5A rocket. From left to right: A - Parachute recoverable design; B - Alternate parachute recovery design; C - Ballute recoverable design; D - Helicopter blade recoverable design; E - Winged recoverable design.
Russian manned spacecraft. Study 1956. In 1956 Korolev laid out an outline plan 'Fast Solutions for the Conquest of Space'. Phase I and II of the plan involved experimental manned sub-orbital flights aboard an R-5A single-stage IRBM.
Phase I would involve ballistic flights and included completion of draft projects for the following new systems for the manned cabin:
- Pressurized cabin with life support system
- Cabin stabilization system
- Parachute system for landing of cabin
- Emergency escape system
- Guidance system
- Engine Unit with throttleable rocket engine
- Radio system with two channel transceiver
- Radio locator beacon to allow recovery forces to locate cabin after recovery
- Central control system
In addition the following new or modified systems would be required for the rocket:
- Modification of rocket the rocket into a launch vehicle for a ballistic payload
- Cabin separation and parachute system
- Guidance system modifications
- Electrical distribution system and unpressurised equipment section
Manned flights were to occur in two phases, starting out at lower speeds, then working up to higher speeds and altitudes up to the maximum capability of the missile.
Phase II would involve creation of a draft project for a manned gliding vehicle. Additional development work required beyond phase I would include:
- Further modification of the cabin and life support system
- Stabilization system to allow stable gliding flight
- Revised escape system
- System for active control of the glider during descent
- Revised engine unit
There was no evidence these designs were taken any further. Drawings were released in an East German magazine in the 1980's purporting to show Korolev OKB-1 suborbital configurations (see above), but these seem to be for a rocket of much larger diameter than the 1.65 m R-5A. However in the end Korolev decided to move immediately to Phase III of his plan - a manned orbiting spacecraft, and not waste time on Phase I and II.
The R-5A was developed for a series of flights in 1958 to test 'artificial comet' release of chemicals at altitude for use on future lunar missions, and biological (dog) payloads. But these tests used a narrow-diameter payload section similar to the IRBM warhead and very different from the planned manned designs. The payload on these missions was 1350 kg to a 450 km altitude.
Crew Size: 1.
Gross mass: 1,350 kg (2,970 lb).
More... - Chronology...
Height: 5.00 m (16.40 ft).
Associated Launch Vehicles
R-5 Russian intermediate range ballistic missile. The R-5 was the first Soviet missile to be armed with a nuclear warhead, the first for which the new southern facility at Dnepropetrovsk took over full design and production responsibility. It was also the end of the road in being the ultimate extrapolation of German V-2 technology. Later missiles of both Yangel and Korolev would use other propellants and engine designs. More...
Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
Korolev Russian manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Korolev Design Bureau, Kaliningrad, Russia. More...
Vetrov, G S, S. P. Korolev i evo delo, Nauka, Moscow, 1998.
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