Encyclopedia Astronautica
Syncom



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Syncom
Credit: NASA
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STS-41-D
Deployment of the Syncom IV (Leasat-2) satellite
Credit: NASA
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STS-41-D
View of the Syncom IV satellite in orbit over the earth
Credit: NASA
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STS-51-A
Syncom IV-1 satellite leaving Discovery's payload bay
Credit: NASA
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STS-51-D
End effector of the Discovery's RMS with tools moves toward Syncom-IV
Credit: NASA
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STS-51-D
Syncom-IV (LEASAT) satellite
Credit: NASA
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STS-51-I
Astronaut James van Hoften on RMS tracking Syncom IV-3 after deployment
Credit: NASA
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STS-51-I
Astronaut James van Hoften working with Syncom IV-3 satellite
Credit: NASA
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STS-51-I
Astronaut James van Hoften working with Syncom IV-3 satellite
Credit: NASA
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STS-51-I
Astronaut James van Hoften working with Syncom IV-3 satellite
Credit: NASA
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STS-32
SYNCOM IV-5 satellite drifts over cloud-covered Earth after STS-32 deployment
Credit: NASA
American communications technology satellite. 3 launches, 1963.02.14 (Syncom I; Syncom 1) to 1964.08.19 (Syncom 3). Experimental telecommunications satellite.

Gross mass: 39 kg (85 lb).
First Launch: 1963.02.14.
Last Launch: 1964.08.19.
Number: 3 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
See also
  • Delta The Delta launch vehicle was America's longest-lived, most reliable, and lowest-cost space launch vehicle. Development began in 1955 and it continued in service in the 21st Century despite numerous candidate replacements. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Delta American orbital launch vehicle. The Delta launch vehicle was America's longest-lived, most reliable, and lowest-cost space launch vehicle. Delta began as Thor, a crash December 1955 program to produce an intermediate range ballistic missile using existing components, which flew thirteen months after go-ahead. Fifteen months after that, a space launch version flew, using an existing upper stage. The addition of solid rocket boosters allowed the Thor core and Able/Delta upper stages to be stretched. Costs were kept down by using first and second-stage rocket engines surplus to the Apollo program in the 1970's. Continuous introduction of new 'existing' technology over the years resulted in an incredible evolution - the payload into a geosynchronous transfer orbit increasing from 68 kg in 1962 to 3810 kg by 2002. Delta survived innumerable attempts to kill the program and replace it with 'more rationale' alternatives. By 2008 nearly 1,000 boosters had flown over a fifty-year career, and cancellation was again announced. More...
  • Delta B American orbital launch vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Thor DM-21 + 1 x AJ10-118A + 1 x Altair More...
  • Delta D American orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 3 x Castor + 1 x Thor DSV-2C + 1 x Delta D + 1 x Altair 2 More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • NASA American agency overseeing development of rockets and spacecraft. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, USA, USA. More...

Bibliography
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Home Page (launch records), Harvard University, 1997-present. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • JPL Mission and Spacecraft Library, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1997. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Launch Log, October 1998. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • NASA Report, Advanced Syncom, Volume 1 Summary Report, Web Address when accessed: here.
  • NASA Report, Advanced Syncom - Syncom II Summary Report, Web Address when accessed: here.
  • NASA Report, Advanced Syncom Monthly Progress Report, Oct. 1962, Web Address when accessed: here.
  • NASA Report, Advanced Syncom Monthly Progress Report, Oct. 1962, Web Address when accessed: here.
  • NASA Report, Advanced Syncom Monthly Progress Report, Nov. 1962, Web Address when accessed: here.
  • NASA Report, Advanced Syncom Monthly Progress Report Dec 1962, Web Address when accessed: here.
  • NASA Report, Advanced Syncom Monthly Progress Report Feb 1963, Web Address when accessed: here.
  • NASA Report, Advanced Syncom Monthly Progress Report April 1963, Web Address when accessed: here.
  • NASA Report, Advanced Syncom Monthly Progress Report May 1963, Web Address when accessed: here.
  • NASA Report, Advanced Syncom Monthly Progress Report July 1963, Web Address when accessed: here.
  • NASA Report, Advanced Syncom Monthly Progress Report, Sep. 1963, Web Address when accessed: here.
  • NASA Report, The SYNCOM III Launch, Web Address when accessed: here.
  • NASA Report, Television Tests With the Syncom II Synchronous Communications Satellite, Web Address when accessed: here.
  • NASA Report, SYNCOM Engineering Report, Volume I, Web Address when accessed: here.
  • NASA Report, SYNCOM Engineering Report, Volume II, Web Address when accessed: here.

Associated Launch Sites
  • Cape Canaveral America's largest launch center, used for all manned launches. Today only six of the 40 launch complexes built here remain in use. Located at or near Cape Canaveral are the Kennedy Space Center on Merritt Island, used by NASA for Saturn V and Space Shuttle launches; Patrick AFB on Cape Canaveral itself, operated the US Department of Defense and handling most other launches; the commercial Spaceport Florida; the air-launched launch vehicle and missile Drop Zone off Mayport, Florida, located at 29.00 N 79.00 W, and an offshore submarine-launched ballistic missile launch area. All of these take advantage of the extensive down-range tracking facilities that once extended from the Cape, through the Caribbean, South Atlantic, and to South Africa and the Indian Ocean. More...
  • Cape Canaveral LC17B Delta launch complex. Part of a dual launch pad complex built for the Thor ballistic missile program in 1956. Upgraded over the decades for use with Thor, Delta, Delta II, and Delta III launch vehicles, it remained in use for over half a century. More...
  • Cape Canaveral LC17A Delta launch complex. Part of a dual launch pad complex built for the Thor ballistic missile program in 1956. Pad 17A supported Thor, Delta, and Delta II launches into the 21st Century. More...

Syncom Chronology


1963 February 14 - . 05:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Delta B. LV Configuration: Thor Delta B 358/D16.
  • Syncom I; Syncom 1 - . Payload: Syncom 1. Mass: 39 kg (85 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Class: Technology. Type: Communications technology satellite. Spacecraft: Syncom. Completed Operations Date: 1963-02-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 553 . COSPAR: 1963-004A. Apogee: 36,739 km (22,828 mi). Perigee: 34,392 km (21,370 mi). Inclination: 33.3000 deg. Period: 1,425.50 min. Experimental commsat; lost contact following orbital injection. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). Four score. Last known longitude (10 March 1987) 172.58 deg E drifting at 2.429 deg E per day.

1963 July 26 - . 14:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Delta B. LV Configuration: Thor Delta B 370/D20.
  • Syncom 2 - . Mass: 39 kg (85 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Class: Technology. Type: Communications technology satellite. Spacecraft: Syncom. Completed Operations Date: 1969-04-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 634 . COSPAR: 1963-031A. Apogee: 35,891 km (22,301 mi). Perigee: 35,891 km (22,301 mi). Inclination: 32.7000 deg. Period: 1,441.50 min. Experimental commsat; 1st geosynchronous satellite. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 55 deg W in 1963; 26 deg W in 1965. Last known longitude (19 July 1995) 68.47 deg E drifting at 0.089 deg W per day.

1964 August 19 - . 12:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Delta D. LV Configuration: Thor Delta D 417/D25.
  • Syncom 3 - . Payload: Syncom C. Mass: 39 kg (85 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Class: Technology. Type: Communications technology satellite. Spacecraft: Syncom. Completed Operations Date: 1974-12-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 858 . COSPAR: 1964-047A. Apogee: 35,792 km (22,240 mi). Perigee: 35,784 km (22,235 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.20 min. Experimental commsat; carried Star Flash experiment. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 64 deg W in 1964; 180 deg E in 1964; 25 deg W in 1965; 165 deg E in 1966-1969. Last known longitude (6 December 1974) 6.08 deg W drifting at 0.188 deg W per day.

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