Encyclopedia Astronautica
Taifun-2



taifun21.jpg
Taifun-2
Credit: Yuzhnoye
Ukrainian military target satellite. 31 launches, 1976.04.28 (Cosmos 816) to 1995.03.02 (Cosmos 2306). In 1969 KB Yuzhnoye introduced targets for exercise and test of PVO air defense and space tracking systems.

The second generation consisted of Taifun-1 and Taifun-2 radar calibration satellites, which differed in the type of equipment installed.

In 1972 KB-3 under B E Khimrov, with the co-operation of assisting organizations and the Ministry of Defense, completed the draft project. The first Taifun-2 was completed in 1976. Flight trials were conducted in the second half of the 1970's using Kosmos-3M launch vehicles from Plesetsk and Kapustin Yar. The heads of the State Trials Commission were B N Karpov, N N Zhukov, and B G Zudin. The system was accepted into military service on 12 March 1981 after 11 launches. Taifun-2 satellites were spherical in shape, 2 m in diameter, with no external solar cells or antennae. Taifun-2 normally released 25 Romb subsatellites into an orbit of 300 to 500 km altitude, at inclinations of 50.7 degrees (from Kapustin Yar) and 65.9 74, or 82.9 degrees (from Plesetsk). Two unique missions in 1989-1990 were put into 180 km x 1550 km orbits at 65.8 degrees. With this higher apogee the payload was reduced to 10 Romb subsatellites.

AKA: Romb; 17F31; Yug.
Height: 2.00 m (6.50 ft).
Span: 2.00 m (6.50 ft).
First Launch: 1976.04.28.
Last Launch: 1995.03.02.
Number: 31 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
See also
  • Kosmos 3 In 1961 Isayev and Reshetnev developed the Voskhod space launch system on the basis of the R-14 IRBM. The initial version of the two stage rocket was designated Kosmos-1. The first 'Voskhod' launch complex was at Baikonur, a modification of one of the pads at the R-16 ICBM launch complex 41. More...
  • Tsiklon The R-36 ICBM was the largest ever built and the bogeyman of the Pentagon throughout the Cold War. Dubbed the 'city buster', the 308 silos built were constantly held up by the US Air Force as an awesome threat that justified a new round of American missile or anti-missile systems. On the other hand, the Americans were never motivated to build and deploy corresponding numbers of their equivalent, the liquid propellant Titan 2. Derivatives of the R-36 included the R-36-O orbital bombing system, the Tsiklon-2 and -3 medium orbital launch vehicles, and the replacement R-36M missiles. With the collapse of the Soviet Union, the design and manufacturing facility ended up in independent Ukraine. Accordingly the missile was finally retired in the 1990's, conveniently in accordance with arms reduction agreements with the Americans. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Kosmos 3 Russian orbital launch vehicle. In 1961 Isayev and Reshetnev developed the Voskhod space launch system on the basis of the R-14 IRBM. The initial version of the two stage rocket was designated Kosmos-1. The first 'Voskhod' launch complex was at Baikonur, a modification of one of the pads at the R-16 ICBM launch complex 41. More...
  • Tsiklon Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. The R-36 ICBM was the largest ever built and the bogeyman of the Pentagon throughout the Cold War. Dubbed the 'city buster', the 308 silos built were constantly held up by the US Air Force as an awesome threat that justified a new round of American missile or anti-missile systems. On the other hand, the Americans were never motivated to build and deploy corresponding numbers of their equivalent, the liquid propellant Titan 2. Derivatives of the R-36 included the R-36-O orbital bombing system, the Tsiklon-2 and -3 medium orbital launch vehicles, and the replacement R-36M missiles. With the collapse of the Soviet Union, the design and manufacturing facility ended up in independent Ukraine. Accordingly the missile was finally retired in the 1990's, conveniently in accordance with arms reduction agreements with the Americans. More...
  • Kosmos 11K65M Russian orbital launch vehicle. Definitive and prolific production version of satellite launcher based on Yangel R-14 IRBM. After further development at NPO Polyot (Omsk, Chief Designer A S Klinishkov), the modified Kosmos-3M added a restartable second stage with an orientation system. This booster was launched form two 'Cusovaya' launch complexes from 1967. The second stage used low thrust rockets using gas generator output to adjust the final velocity of the stage More...
  • Tsiklon-3 Ukrainian orbital launch vehicle. The Tsyklon 3 was developed in 1970-1977 as a part of a program to reduce the number of Soviet booster types. The first two stages were derived from the 8K68 version of the R-36 ICBM, while the restartable third stage was derived from that of the R-36-O. Compared to the Tsyklon 2, the launch vehicle increased payload to 4 metric tons, provided for completely automated launch operations, and had increased orbital injection accuracy. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Yuzhnoye Ukrainian manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Yangel Design Bureau, Dnepropetrovsk, Ukraine. More...

Bibliography
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Home Page (launch records), Harvard University, 1997-present. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • JPL Mission and Spacecraft Library, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1997. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Voevodin, Sergey A, "Sergey A. Voevodin's Reports", VSA072 - Space Apparatus, Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Melnik, T G, Voenno-Kosmicheskiy Siliy, Nauka, Moscow, 1997..
  • Siddiqi, Asif A, The Soviet Space Race With Apollo, University Press of Florida, 2003.

Associated Launch Sites
  • Kapustin Yar Russia's first missile test range and used for satellite launches of smaller Kosmos vehicles. V-2's launched from here in 1946 were the first ballistic missiles fired on Soviet territory. It was greatly expanded as the test site for innumerable Soviet intermediate and short range missile projects in the 1950's.. Kapustin Year was also headquarters of the first operational R-1/R-2 units, 1950-1953, and later a base for 12 operational R-14 missile launchers. Kapustin Yar was known to have been used for over 3519 major launches from 1946 to 2007. More...
  • Plesetsk Plesetsk was the Soviet Union's northern cosmodrome, used for polar orbit launches of mainly military satellites, and was at one time the busiest launch centre in the world. The collapse of the Soviet Union put the main launch site of Baikonur in Kazakh territory. It now seems that once the Proton rocket is retired, Baikonur will be abandoned and Plesetsk will be Russia's primary launch centre. Upgrades to existing launch facilities will allow advanced versions of the Soyuz rocket and the new Angara launch vehicle to be launched from Plesetsk. Plesetsk's major drawback was the lower net payload in geosynchronous orbit from a northern latitude launch site. However Russia is planning to remove the disadvantage by looping geosynchronous satellites around the moon, using lunar gravity to make the necessary orbital plane change. More...

Taifun-2 Chronology


1971 October 1 - .
  • Taifun-2 development approved. - . Nation: USSR. Spacecraft: Taifun-2. Summary: Decree 'On the Development of an Adjustment Complex with the Taifun-2' Artificial Satellite--approval of work on the Taifun-2 system' was issued..

1976 April 28 - . 13:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 53746-301.
  • Cosmos 816 - . Mass: 950 kg (2,090 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Class: Military. Type: Radar calibration target. Spacecraft: Taifun-2. Decay Date: 1979-11-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 8812 . COSPAR: 1976-037A. Apogee: 566 km (351 mi). Perigee: 453 km (281 mi). Inclination: 65.9000 deg. Period: 94.80 min. Summary: Released 24 Romb radar calibration subsatellites..

1976 December 17 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/2. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 53721-255.
  • Cosmos 885 - . Mass: 900 kg (1,980 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Class: Military. Type: Radar calibration target. Spacecraft: Taifun-2. Decay Date: 1979-10-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 9615 . COSPAR: 1976-124A. Apogee: 520 km (320 mi). Perigee: 433 km (269 mi). Inclination: 65.9000 deg. Period: 94.10 min. Summary: Released 18 Romb radar calibration subsatellites..

1977 April 27 - . 03:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar LC107/1. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 53731-287.
  • Cosmos 906 - . Mass: 550 kg (1,210 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Class: Military. Type: Radar calibration target. Spacecraft: Taifun-2. Decay Date: 1980-03-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 9938 . COSPAR: 1977-031A. Apogee: 515 km (320 mi). Perigee: 464 km (288 mi). Inclination: 50.6000 deg. Period: 94.40 min. Summary: Released 1 Romb radar calibration subsatellite. Possible partially failed spacecraft bus..

1977 May 30 - . 22:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 53749-161.
  • Cosmos 913 - . Mass: 550 kg (1,210 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Class: Military. Type: Radar calibration target. Spacecraft: Taifun-2. Decay Date: 1979-12-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 10028 . COSPAR: 1977-042A. Apogee: 520 km (320 mi). Perigee: 474 km (294 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 94.50 min. Summary: Released 21 Romb radar calibration subsatellites..

1977 December 8 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/2. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 65068-308.
  • Cosmos 965 - . Mass: 550 kg (1,210 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Class: Military. Type: Radar calibration target. Spacecraft: Taifun-2. Decay Date: 1979-12-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 10501 . COSPAR: 1977-111A. Apogee: 516 km (320 mi). Perigee: 465 km (288 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 94.40 min. Summary: Released 24 Romb radar calibration subsatellites..

1978 December 22 - . 22:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar LC107/1. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 65068-305.
  • Cosmos 1065 - . Mass: 1,170 kg (2,570 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Class: Military. Type: Radar calibration target. Spacecraft: Taifun-2. Decay Date: 1979-08-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 11163 . COSPAR: 1978-120A. Apogee: 544 km (338 mi). Perigee: 348 km (216 mi). Inclination: 50.6000 deg. Period: 93.50 min. Summary: Radar calibration. Released 7 Romb radar calibration subsatellites. Possible partially failed spacecraft bus..

1979 July 6 - . 08:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar LC107/1. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 65075-124.
  • Cosmos 1112 - . Mass: 1,190 kg (2,620 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Class: Military. Type: Radar calibration target. Spacecraft: Taifun-2. Decay Date: 1980-01-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 11443 . COSPAR: 1979-063A. Apogee: 541 km (336 mi). Perigee: 357 km (221 mi). Inclination: 50.6000 deg. Period: 93.50 min. Summary: Radar calibration. Released 25 Romb radar calibration subsatellites..

1980 June 6 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 47168-306.
  • Cosmos 1186 - . Mass: 900 kg (1,980 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Class: Military. Type: Radar calibration target. Spacecraft: Taifun-2. Decay Date: 1982-01-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 11829 . COSPAR: 1980-047A. Apogee: 414 km (257 mi). Perigee: 388 km (241 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 92.60 min. Summary: Released 25 Romb radar calibration subsatellites..

1980 July 31 - . 10:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar LC107/1. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 47175-122.
  • Cosmos 1204 - . Mass: 900 kg (1,980 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Class: Military. Type: Radar calibration target. Spacecraft: Taifun-2. Decay Date: 1981-02-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 11917 . COSPAR: 1980-067A. Apogee: 546 km (339 mi). Perigee: 349 km (216 mi). Inclination: 50.7000 deg. Period: 93.50 min. Summary: Radar calibration. Released 25 Romb radar calibration subsatellites..

1981 September 28 - . 21:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/2. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 53775-114.
  • Cosmos 1311 - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Class: Military. Type: Radar calibration target. Spacecraft: Taifun-2. Decay Date: 1983-08-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 12871 . COSPAR: 1981-097A. Apogee: 513 km (318 mi). Perigee: 462 km (287 mi). Inclination: 82.9000 deg. Period: 94.30 min. Summary: Released 25 Romb radar calibration subsatellites..

1982 January 29 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 65075-115.
  • Cosmos 1335 - . Mass: 550 kg (1,210 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Class: Military. Type: Radar calibration target. Spacecraft: Taifun-2. Decay Date: 1987-04-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 13042 . COSPAR: 1982-007A. Apogee: 513 km (318 mi). Perigee: 476 km (295 mi). Inclination: 74.1000 deg. Period: 94.50 min. Summary: Radar calibration; replaced Cosmos 1186. Released 25 Romb radar calibration subsatellites..

1982 March 4 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar LC107/1. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 53739-530. FAILURE: Launch vehicle failed to orbit - unknown cause.. Failed Stage: U.
  • Romb - . Nation: USSR. Agency: UNKS. Class: Military. Type: Radar calibration target. Spacecraft: Taifun-2. COSPAR: F820304W. Summary: Released 25 Romb radar calibration subsatellites..

1982 April 21 - . 01:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar LC107/1. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 53767-256.
  • Cosmos 1351 - . Mass: 550 kg (1,210 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Class: Military. Type: Radar calibration target. Spacecraft: Taifun-2. Decay Date: 1983-03-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 13142 . COSPAR: 1982-034A. Apogee: 548 km (340 mi). Perigee: 348 km (216 mi). Inclination: 50.7000 deg. Period: 93.60 min. Summary: Released 25 Romb radar calibration subsatellites..

1982 July 29 - . 19:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar LC107/1. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 53793-472.
  • Cosmos 1397 - . Mass: 550 kg (1,210 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Class: Military. Type: Radar calibration target. Spacecraft: Taifun-2. Decay Date: 1983-05-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 13394 . COSPAR: 1982-076A. Apogee: 539 km (334 mi). Perigee: 343 km (213 mi). Inclination: 50.7000 deg. Period: 93.40 min. Summary: Released 25 Romb radar calibration subsatellites..

1983 January 25 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/2. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 47193-480. FAILURE: Launch vehicle failed to orbit - unknown cause.. Failed Stage: U.
  • Romb - . Nation: USSR. Agency: UNKS. Class: Military. Type: Radar calibration target. Spacecraft: Taifun-2. COSPAR: F830125J. Summary: Carried Romb radar calibration subsatellites..

1983 April 19 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/2. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 47119-520.
  • Cosmos 1453 - . Mass: 550 kg (1,210 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Class: Military. Type: Radar calibration target. Spacecraft: Taifun-2. Decay Date: 1989-05-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 14006 . COSPAR: 1983-034A. Apogee: 466 km (289 mi). Perigee: 434 km (269 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 93.60 min. Summary: Released 25 Romb radar calibration subsatellites..

1983 May 26 - . 05:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar LC107/1. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 65083-458.
  • Cosmos 1465 - . Mass: 550 kg (1,210 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Class: Military. Type: Radar calibration target. Spacecraft: Taifun-2. Decay Date: 1985-01-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 14087 . COSPAR: 1983-049A. Apogee: 541 km (336 mi). Perigee: 349 km (216 mi). Inclination: 50.7000 deg. Period: 93.50 min. Summary: Released 25 Romb radar calibration subsatellites..

1983 August 31 - . 06:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar LC107/1. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 47139-547.
  • Cosmos 1494 - . Mass: 550 kg (1,210 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Class: Military. Type: Radar calibration target. Spacecraft: Taifun-2. Decay Date: 1985-09-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 14316 . COSPAR: 1983-091A. Apogee: 413 km (256 mi). Perigee: 309 km (192 mi). Inclination: 50.7000 deg. Period: 91.80 min. Summary: Released 25 Romb radar calibration subsatellites..

1983 September 30 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 65093-482.
  • Cosmos 1501 - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Class: Military. Type: Radar calibration target. Spacecraft: Taifun-2. Decay Date: 1989-05-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 14380 . COSPAR: 1983-101A. Apogee: 472 km (293 mi). Perigee: 437 km (271 mi). Inclination: 82.9000 deg. Period: 93.70 min. Summary: Released 25 Romb radar calibration subsatellites..

1984 September 27 - . 09:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/2. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 53796-180.
  • Cosmos 1601 - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Class: Military. Type: Radar calibration target. Spacecraft: Taifun-2. Decay Date: 1989-11-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 15326 . COSPAR: 1984-104A. Apogee: 414 km (257 mi). Perigee: 387 km (240 mi). Inclination: 65.8000 deg. Period: 92.60 min. Summary: Released 25 Romb radar calibration subsatellites..

1985 June 19 - . 11:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/2. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 65044-147.
  • Cosmos 1662 - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Class: Military. Type: Radar calibration target. Spacecraft: Taifun-2. Decay Date: 1989-11-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 15833 . COSPAR: 1985-050A. Apogee: 410 km (250 mi). Perigee: 386 km (239 mi). Inclination: 65.8000 deg. Period: 92.50 min. Summary: Released 25 Romb radar calibration subsatellites..

1985 October 2 - . 06:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar LC107/1. Launch Pad: LC107/pad?. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 65044-153.
  • Cosmos 1688 - . Mass: 550 kg (1,210 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Class: Military. Type: Radar calibration target. Spacecraft: Taifun-2. Decay Date: 1988-07-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 16107 . COSPAR: 1985-089A. Apogee: 434 km (269 mi). Perigee: 320 km (190 mi). Inclination: 50.7000 deg. Period: 92.10 min. Summary: Released 25 Romb radar calibration subsatellites..

1986 September 3 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 65022-342.
  • Cosmos 1776 - . Mass: 700 kg (1,540 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Class: Military. Type: Radar calibration target. Spacecraft: Taifun-2. Decay Date: 1989-12-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 16928 . COSPAR: 1986-067A. Apogee: 417 km (259 mi). Perigee: 403 km (250 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 92.80 min. Summary: Released 25 Romb radar calibration subsatellites..

1987 January 22 - . 07:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar LC107/1. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 65048-415.
  • Cosmos 1815 - . Mass: 700 kg (1,540 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Class: Military. Type: Radar calibration target. Spacecraft: Taifun-2. Decay Date: 1988-11-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 17326 . COSPAR: 1987-007A. Apogee: 507 km (315 mi). Perigee: 336 km (208 mi). Inclination: 50.7000 deg. Period: 93.00 min. Summary: Released 25 Romb radar calibration subsatellites..

1988 July 28 - . 11:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 65026-187.
  • Cosmos 1960 - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Class: Military. Type: Radar calibration target. Spacecraft: Taifun-2. Decay Date: 1990-04-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 19338 . COSPAR: 1988-065A. Apogee: 379 km (235 mi). Perigee: 369 km (229 mi). Inclination: 65.8000 deg. Period: 92.00 min. Summary: Released 25 Romb radar calibration subsatellites..

1989 February 14 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/2. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 53726-192.
  • Cosmos 2002 - . Mass: 500 kg (1,100 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Class: Military. Type: Radar calibration target. Spacecraft: Taifun-2. Decay Date: 1989-10-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 19800 . COSPAR: 1989-012A. Apogee: 1,525 km (947 mi). Perigee: 179 km (111 mi). Inclination: 65.8000 deg. Period: 102.00 min. Summary: Released 10 Romb radar calibration subsatellites..

1990 February 6 - . 16:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/2. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 53711-237.
  • Cosmos 2059 - . Mass: 500 kg (1,100 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Class: Military. Type: Radar calibration target. Spacecraft: Taifun-2. Decay Date: 1990-11-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 20476 . COSPAR: 1990-012A. Apogee: 1,585 km (984 mi). Perigee: 184 km (114 mi). Inclination: 65.8000 deg. Period: 102.70 min. Summary: Released 10 Romb radar calibration subsatellites..

1990 April 25 - . 13:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/2. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 65061-253.
  • Cosmos 2075 - . Mass: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Class: Military. Type: Radar calibration target. Spacecraft: Taifun-2. Decay Date: 1992-02-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 20581 . COSPAR: 1990-038A. Apogee: 439 km (272 mi). Perigee: 418 km (259 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 93.20 min. Summary: Released 25 Romb radar calibration subsatellites..

1990 November 28 - . 16:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32. Launch Pad: LC32/pad?. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Cosmos 2106 - . Payload: Tselina-D no. 69. Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Spacecraft: Taifun-2. Decay Date: 2000-04-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 20966 . COSPAR: 1990-104A. Apogee: 469 km (291 mi). Perigee: 458 km (284 mi). Inclination: 82.5000 deg. Period: 93.90 min. Summary: Released 27 Romb radar calibration subsatellites..

1991 June 25 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 65061-262. FAILURE: Second stage malfunction - no stable orbit.. Failed Stage: 2.
  • Romb - . Nation: USSR. Agency: UNKS. Class: Military. Type: Radar calibration target. Spacecraft: Taifun-2. COSPAR: F910625M. Summary: Released 25 Romb radar calibration subsatellites..

1995 March 2 - . 13:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M.
  • Cosmos 2306 - . Mass: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Class: Military. Type: Radar calibration target. Spacecraft: Taifun-2. Decay Date: 2000-10-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 23501 . COSPAR: 1995-008A. Apogee: 513 km (318 mi). Perigee: 466 km (289 mi). Inclination: 65.8000 deg. Period: 94.20 min. Summary: Released 25 Romb radar calibration subsatellites. Reentered on October 30, 2000..

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