Encyclopedia Astronautica
TIROS


American earth weather satellite. 12 launches, 1960.04.01 (Tiros 1) to 1966.02.28 (ESSA 2). TIROS spacecraft were the beginning of a long series of polar-orbiting meteorological satellites.

TIROS was followed by the TOS (TIROS Operational System) series, and then the ITOS (Improved TIROS) series, and later the NOAA series. TIROS spacecraft were developed by GSFC and managed by ESSA (Environmental Science Services Administration). The objective was to establish a global weather satellite system. Spacecraft: Body mounted solar cells. Payload: TIROS spacecraft carried low resolution television and infrared cameras.

AKA: Television Infrared Observation Satellite.
Gross mass: 130 kg (280 lb).
Height: 0.48 m (1.57 ft).
First Launch: 1960.04.01.
Last Launch: 1966.02.28.
Number: 12 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
See also
  • Delta The Delta launch vehicle was America's longest-lived, most reliable, and lowest-cost space launch vehicle. Development began in 1955 and it continued in service in the 21st Century despite numerous candidate replacements. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Delta American orbital launch vehicle. The Delta launch vehicle was America's longest-lived, most reliable, and lowest-cost space launch vehicle. Delta began as Thor, a crash December 1955 program to produce an intermediate range ballistic missile using existing components, which flew thirteen months after go-ahead. Fifteen months after that, a space launch version flew, using an existing upper stage. The addition of solid rocket boosters allowed the Thor core and Able/Delta upper stages to be stretched. Costs were kept down by using first and second-stage rocket engines surplus to the Apollo program in the 1970's. Continuous introduction of new 'existing' technology over the years resulted in an incredible evolution - the payload into a geosynchronous transfer orbit increasing from 68 kg in 1962 to 3810 kg by 2002. Delta survived innumerable attempts to kill the program and replace it with 'more rationale' alternatives. By 2008 nearly 1,000 boosters had flown over a fifty-year career, and cancellation was again announced. More...
  • Thor Able American orbital launch vehicle. Thor with Able stage derived from Vanguard second stage. More...
  • Thor Able II American orbital launch vehicle. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Thor DM-18A + 1 x Able 2/AJ10-42 More...
  • Thor Delta American orbital launch vehicle. Commercial name for the military's Thor-Delta. The name of the Delta second stage eventually was applied to subsequent commercial follow-ons. More...
  • Delta B American orbital launch vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Thor DM-21 + 1 x AJ10-118A + 1 x Altair More...
  • Thor Delta C American orbital launch vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Thor DSV-2A + 1 x Delta D + 1 x Altair 2 More...
  • Delta E American orbital launch vehicle. Thor augmented with 3 x Castor 2 motors with Delta E and Altair 2 upper stage. More...
  • Delta C American orbital launch vehicle. Unaugmented Thor with Delta D and solid propellant upper stages. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • NASA American agency overseeing development of rockets and spacecraft. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, USA, USA. More...
  • ESSA American agency overseeing development of spacecraft. Environmental Science Services Administration, USA. More...
  • NOAA American agency overseeing development of spacecraft. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, USA. More...
  • RCA American manufacturer of spacecraft. RCA, USA. More...

Associated Programs
  • Tiros TIROS spacecraft were the beginning of a long series of polar-orbiting meteorological satellites. TIROS was followed by the TOS (TIROS Operational System) series, and then the ITOS (Improved TIROS) series, and later the NOAA series. TIROS spacecraft were developed by GSFC and managed by ESSA (Environmental Science Services Administration). The objective was to establish a global weather satellite system. More...

Bibliography
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Home Page (launch records), Harvard University, 1997-present. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • JPL Mission and Spacecraft Library, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1997. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Launch Log, October 1998. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • NASA Report, Tiros- The System and Its Evolution, Web Address when accessed: here.
  • NASA Report, The latitudinal distribution of cloud cover from TIROS photographs, Web Address when accessed: here.
  • NASA Report, TIROS VII Radiation Data Catalog and User's Manual, Volume 2, October 1, 1963 - February 29, 1964, Web Address when accessed: here.
  • NASA Report, TOS Mission Operations Plan for WTR Launches, Web Address when accessed: here.
  • NASA Report, Design Report For The Tiros Operational Satellite /Tos/ System, Web Address when accessed: here.
  • NASA Report, Atlas of Interpreted Photography of Southern Africa From Tiros Satellites I To Vlll, Web Address when accessed: here.
  • NASA Report, Tiros X Meteorological Satellite System, Volume I Final Engineering Report, Web Address when accessed: here.
  • NASA Report, Utilization of Radiometer Flown in Tiros III Satellite in Viewing Hurricane Anna, 1961 , Web Address when accessed: here.
  • NASA Report, The TIROS II Radiation Experiment, Web Address when accessed: here.
  • NASA Report, The TIROS Low Resolution Radiometer, Web Address when accessed: here.
  • NASA Report, A synoptic world weather analysis of Tiros VII radiation data, Web Address when accessed: here.
  • NASA Report, Telemetering Infrared Data from the Tiros Meteorological Satellites, Web Address when accessed: here.
  • NASA Report, Tiros 1 Meteorological Satellite System Fnal Report, Web Address when accessed: here.
  • NASA Report, Tiros VII Infrared Radiation Coverage of the 1963 Atlantic Hurricane Season With Supporting Television and Conventional Meteorological Data, Web Address when accessed: here.
  • NASA Report, The International Meteorological Satellite Workshop Nov 1961, Web Address when accessed: here.

Associated Launch Sites
  • Cape Canaveral America's largest launch center, used for all manned launches. Today only six of the 40 launch complexes built here remain in use. Located at or near Cape Canaveral are the Kennedy Space Center on Merritt Island, used by NASA for Saturn V and Space Shuttle launches; Patrick AFB on Cape Canaveral itself, operated the US Department of Defense and handling most other launches; the commercial Spaceport Florida; the air-launched launch vehicle and missile Drop Zone off Mayport, Florida, located at 29.00 N 79.00 W, and an offshore submarine-launched ballistic missile launch area. All of these take advantage of the extensive down-range tracking facilities that once extended from the Cape, through the Caribbean, South Atlantic, and to South Africa and the Indian Ocean. More...
  • Cape Canaveral LC17B Delta launch complex. Part of a dual launch pad complex built for the Thor ballistic missile program in 1956. Upgraded over the decades for use with Thor, Delta, Delta II, and Delta III launch vehicles, it remained in use for over half a century. More...
  • Cape Canaveral LC17A Delta launch complex. Part of a dual launch pad complex built for the Thor ballistic missile program in 1956. Pad 17A supported Thor, Delta, and Delta II launches into the 21st Century. More...

TIROS Chronology


1960 April 1 - . 11:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Thor Able II. LV Configuration: Thor Able II-M1 148.
  • Tiros 1 - . Payload: Tiros A (A-1). Mass: 120 kg (260 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: Tiros. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Tiros. USAF Sat Cat: 29 . COSPAR: 1960-Beta-2. Apogee: 696 km (432 mi). Perigee: 656 km (407 mi). Inclination: 48.4000 deg. Period: 98.30 min. Summary: TV and Infrared Observation Satellite; returned 22952 cloud cover photos. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C)..

1960 November 23 - . 11:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Thor Delta. LV Configuration: Thor Delta 245/D3.
  • Tiros 2 - . Payload: Tiros B (A-2). Mass: 130 kg (280 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: Tiros. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Tiros. USAF Sat Cat: 63 . COSPAR: 1960-Pi-1. Apogee: 610 km (370 mi). Perigee: 547 km (339 mi). Inclination: 48.5000 deg. Period: 96.30 min. Summary: Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C)..

1961 July 12 - . 10:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Thor Delta. LV Configuration: Thor Delta 286/D5.
  • Tiros 3 - . Payload: Tiros C (A-3). Mass: 129 kg (284 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: Tiros. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Tiros. USAF Sat Cat: 162 . COSPAR: 1961-Rho-1. Apogee: 790 km (490 mi). Perigee: 723 km (449 mi). Inclination: 47.9000 deg. Period: 100.00 min. Summary: Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C)..

1962 February 8 - . 12:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Thor Delta. LV Configuration: Thor Delta 317/D7.
  • Tiros 4 - . Payload: Tiros D (A-9). Mass: 129 kg (284 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: Tiros. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Tiros. USAF Sat Cat: 226 . COSPAR: 1962-Beta-1. Apogee: 812 km (504 mi). Perigee: 693 km (430 mi). Inclination: 48.3000 deg. Period: 99.90 min. Summary: Returned 32593 cloud cover photos. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C)..

1962 June 19 - . 12:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Thor Delta. LV Configuration: Thor Delta 321/D10.
  • Tiros 5 - . Payload: Tiros E (A-50). Mass: 129 kg (284 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: Tiros. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Tiros. USAF Sat Cat: 309 . COSPAR: 1962-A-Alpha-1. Apogee: 880 km (540 mi). Perigee: 580 km (360 mi). Inclination: 58.1000 deg. Period: 99.40 min. Summary: Returned 58226 cloud cover images. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C)..

1962 September 18 - . 08:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Thor Delta. LV Configuration: Thor Delta 318/D12.
  • Tiros 6 - . Payload: Tiros F2 (A-51). Mass: 127 kg (279 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: Tiros. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Tiros. USAF Sat Cat: 397 . COSPAR: 1962-A-Psi-1. Apogee: 654 km (406 mi). Perigee: 631 km (392 mi). Inclination: 58.3000 deg. Period: 97.60 min. Summary: Returned 66674 cloud cover images. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C)..

1963 June 19 - . 09:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Delta B. LV Configuration: Thor Delta B 359/D19.
  • Tiros 7 - . Payload: Tiros G (A-52). Mass: 135 kg (297 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: Tiros. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Tiros. Decay Date: 1994-06-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 604 . COSPAR: 1963-024A. Apogee: 349 km (216 mi). Perigee: 338 km (210 mi). Inclination: 58.2000 deg. Period: 91.40 min. Summary: Returned over 150000 cloud cover images. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C)..

1963 December 21 - . 09:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Delta B. LV Configuration: Thor Delta B 371/D22.
  • Tiros 8 - . Payload: Tiros H (A-53). Mass: 119 kg (262 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: Tiros. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Tiros. USAF Sat Cat: 716 . COSPAR: 1963-054A. Apogee: 705 km (438 mi). Perigee: 667 km (414 mi). Inclination: 58.5000 deg. Period: 98.50 min. Summary: Returned more than 100,000 cloud cover images. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C)..

1965 January 22 - . 07:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Thor Delta C. LV Configuration: Thor Delta C 374/D28.
  • Tiros 9 - . Payload: Tiros I (A-54). Mass: 138 kg (304 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: Tiros. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Tiros. USAF Sat Cat: 978 . COSPAR: 1965-004A. Apogee: 2,563 km (1,592 mi). Perigee: 705 km (438 mi). Inclination: 96.4000 deg. Period: 119.00 min. Summary: Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C)..

1965 July 2 - . 04:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Thor Delta C. LV Configuration: Thor Delta C 415/D32.
  • Tiros 10 - . Payload: Tiros OT1. Mass: 127 kg (279 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: ESSA. Program: Tiros. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Tiros. USAF Sat Cat: 1430 . COSPAR: 1965-051A. Apogee: 807 km (501 mi). Perigee: 722 km (448 mi). Inclination: 98.8000 deg. Period: 100.10 min. Summary: Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C)..

1966 February 3 - . 07:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Thor Delta C. LV Configuration: Thor Delta C 445/D36.
  • ESSA 1 - . Payload: Tiros OT3. Mass: 138 kg (304 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: ESSA. Program: Tiros. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Tiros. USAF Sat Cat: 1982 . COSPAR: 1966-008A. Apogee: 806 km (500 mi). Perigee: 684 km (425 mi). Inclination: 97.8000 deg. Period: 99.70 min. Summary: Environmental Survey Satellite. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C)..

1966 February 28 - . 13:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Delta E. LV Configuration: Thor Delta E 461/D37.
  • ESSA 2 - . Payload: Tiros OT2. Mass: 132 kg (291 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: ESSA. Program: Tiros. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Tiros. USAF Sat Cat: 2091 . COSPAR: 1966-016A. Apogee: 1,415 km (879 mi). Perigee: 1,355 km (841 mi). Inclination: 101.3000 deg. Period: 113.50 min. Summary: Environmental Survey Satellite; carried APT cameras. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C)..

Home - Browse - Contact
© / Conditions for Use