Encyclopedia Astronautica
US-P



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US-P
Credit: © Mark Wade
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US-P in Test
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RTR
Credit: Arsenal
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US-P
Credit: © Mark Wade
Russian military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. 37 launches, 1974.12.24 (Cosmos 699) to 1991.01.18 (Cosmos 2122). The US-P (later known as RTR) was a solar powered EORSAT (Electronic Ocean Reconnaissance Satellite).

It used an active radar to track naval vessels from space in darkness and all weather. The RTR was an element in the integrated Soviet weapons system devoted to destruction of the US Navy's surface and submarine forces.

The system used space-based platforms to obtain the location of enemy forces at sea. This targeting information was provided to aircraft, surface vessels, and submarines and fed into anti-ship missiles that would attack the US forces from over the horizon. The RLS had a complex development history, with three chief designers overseeing its development. It was conceived and designed by Chelomei in 1959-1964; redesigned and flight tested by Savin in 1965-1969; and finally completed and put into service by KB Arsenal from 1969 on. The nuclear reactor aboard the US-A crashed to earth several times, causing international incidents. Furthermore the RLS had the lowest reliability and most quality problems of any Soviet space system. Nevertheless the system eventually allowed the Soviet Union to continuously monitor naval traffic throughout the oceans of the world.

The RTR (Space Complex of Radio-Technical Reconnaissance) was placed into a 420 km orbit inclined 65 degrees by the Tsyklon 2 booster. Systems aboard the 3300 kg satellite included the Radio-Technical Reconnaissance system and systems for electronic camouflage and self-protection. An engine unit maintained the orbital altitude and made a final deorbit of the satellite at the end of the mission.

Beginning in the late 1950's, Chelomei began studying use of his encapsulated cruise missile technology for spacecraft. A whole family of unmanned spacecraft, dubbed Kosmoplans, would be built using modular elements. One variant of the Kosmoplan would conduct naval radar and signals reconnaissance, launched by the UR-200 rocket.

In 1959, as Chelomei laid out these plans, he knew a tremendous struggle would be required to wrest a piece of the space program from Chief Designer Korolev. But Chelomei had stacked the deck against Korolev by hiring Khrushchev's son as a lead engineer at his OKB. By 30 May 1960 Korolev presented to the Soviet leadership a plan that now included participation of Chelomei. One project allocated to Chelomei was theme US - Upravlenniye Sputnik - a naval reconnaissance satellite using a P6 nuclear reactor for active tracking and targeting American warships. This was to be developed in 1962 to 1964. Chelomei was authorized by Decree 715-296 of 23 June 1960 'On the Production of Various Launch Vehicles, Satellites, Spacecraft for the Military Space Forces in 1960-1967' to complete a draft project on unpiloted Kosmoplans.

At the beginning of the 1960's the Soviet Union had developed anti-ship missiles of very long range but the problem of locating the missile's targets had not been solved. The first resolution for development of a Kosmoplan-derived Naval Space Reconnaissance and Targeting System (MKRTs) was issued in March 1961. The Kosmoplan's UR-200 (8K81) launch vehicle was approved for production on 16 March and 1 August 1961 by the Central Committee and Politburo. The Kosmoplan and UR-200 draft projects were completed in July 1962. Trial flights of the ICBM version of the UR-200 ran from 4 November 1963 to 20 October 1964.

Basic research on the concept was conducted by several rocket, radio-technical, and electro-technical design bureaus and research institutes. Theoretical research in the optimum orbit for the system was undertaken at the Academy of Sciences under Keldysh. The spacecraft was developed by Chelomei at OKB-52 and A A Raspletin at KB-1 MRP.

On October 13, 1964, Khrushchev was ousted from power. The new leadership, under Brezhnev, was adverse to all projects Khrushchev had supported, particularly those of Chelomei. An expert commission under M V Keldysh decided to cancel the UR-200, while the US was assigned to KB-1. Manager for the system at KB-1 was A I Savin, who was head of the renamed TsNII Kometa after 1973. The spacecraft was to be redesigned for launch by the Tsyklon 2 version of Yangel's R-36 rocket.

Two separate versions of the spacecraft were to be developed. The solar-powered US-P would provide SIGINT services for the Soviet Navy and track naval ships passively. The spacecraft was still by TsKBM MOM (Chelomei) with the US-P's radio intercept system by TsNII-108. The project was jointly managed by the VMF Soviet Navy's Directorate for Rocket-Artillery Forces (URAV) and the GUKOS Military Space Force.

By the end of the 1960's development was largely complete, including flight tests from 1965 of mass models and experimental prototypes equipped with orientation, stabilization, and radio-control systems. But the principal radar system had not completed development and was not available for flight test. Finally it was decided that Chelomei's NPO Mash just didn't have the resources to bring the project to completion. Furthermore the design bureau had additional tasks with development of the Almaz and DOS space stations. Therefore Afanasyev decided to transfer the entire project to NPO Arsenal in May 1969. Arsenal had proven itself in development of the RT-2, RT-15, and D-II solid propellant ballistic missiles and had extensive test stands available that could be used for spacecraft development.

Work on spacecraft at KB Arsenal began in 1969 with the turnover to Arsenal of the documentation on these Chelomei-designed unmanned spacecraft. Arsenal was made responsible for series production and development of new variants. V F Kalabin was named head of the new space section.

MKRTs still consisted of two satellites. The RTR (ex-US-P) electronic intelligence system was powered by a solar electric unit (SEU). The technical documentation of the RTR was virtually non-existent. A special design collective was formed under V F Kalabin to get the RTR drawings released by the first quarter of 1970.

Ye K Ivanov was Chief of the Design Bureau and Director of the Factory at KB Arsenal. Head project engineers for MKRTs were N N Kazakov and I A Abramov. The following were the principal subcontractors:

  • Radio controls and spacecraft control systems: KB-1/Savin
  • Orientation/Stabilization System - TsKB Almaz, MRO/P M Kirillov
  • RLS - Moscow NII Priborstraonenniy MRP/I A Brakhanskiy, P O Salugavik
  • ELINT - Kaluga NIRTI MRP/S I Baburin, V L Grechko
  • Engine Unite - MKB Soyuz MAP, Turayev / V U Stepanov, D D Gelevich
  • Telemetry - NII Pirborosrenniy MOM, V V Khrunov, V B Kharin

This was a new area for Arsenal and required the staff to master new electronic technology. Nevertheless by the end of 1970 the first research and development spacecraft was ready for launch and the RLS system was undergoing static trials. During the course of 1971-1972 all ground research and qualification tests were completed. Flight trials of the RTR began in 1974. These were successful and even test operations of the system marked a major new military capability for the VMF. The RTR was accepted for military service in 1978.

Between 1979 and 1989 a phased modernization of the MKRTs was undertaken, providing better accuracy, localization of targets, and one-time observation capability. The entire surface of the world's ocean was continuously monitored, a feat not achieved by any other system. The system's effectiveness was proven in the 1982 Falklands War, when MKRTs monitored the British forces and was able to advise the General Staff of the Soviet Navy of the exact moment of the British landing.

AKA: 17F17.
Gross mass: 3,300 kg (7,200 lb).
First Launch: 1974.12.24.
Last Launch: 1991.01.18.
Number: 37 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
Associated Engines
See also
  • Tsiklon The R-36 ICBM was the largest ever built and the bogeyman of the Pentagon throughout the Cold War. Dubbed the 'city buster', the 308 silos built were constantly held up by the US Air Force as an awesome threat that justified a new round of American missile or anti-missile systems. On the other hand, the Americans were never motivated to build and deploy corresponding numbers of their equivalent, the liquid propellant Titan 2. Derivatives of the R-36 included the R-36-O orbital bombing system, the Tsiklon-2 and -3 medium orbital launch vehicles, and the replacement R-36M missiles. With the collapse of the Soviet Union, the design and manufacturing facility ended up in independent Ukraine. Accordingly the missile was finally retired in the 1990's, conveniently in accordance with arms reduction agreements with the Americans. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Tsiklon Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. The R-36 ICBM was the largest ever built and the bogeyman of the Pentagon throughout the Cold War. Dubbed the 'city buster', the 308 silos built were constantly held up by the US Air Force as an awesome threat that justified a new round of American missile or anti-missile systems. On the other hand, the Americans were never motivated to build and deploy corresponding numbers of their equivalent, the liquid propellant Titan 2. Derivatives of the R-36 included the R-36-O orbital bombing system, the Tsiklon-2 and -3 medium orbital launch vehicles, and the replacement R-36M missiles. With the collapse of the Soviet Union, the design and manufacturing facility ended up in independent Ukraine. Accordingly the missile was finally retired in the 1990's, conveniently in accordance with arms reduction agreements with the Americans. More...
  • Tsiklon-2 Ukrainian orbital launch vehicle. A government decree of 24 August 1965 ordered development by Yangel of a version of his R-36 rocket to orbit Chelomei's IS (Istrebitel Sputnik) ASAT and US (Upravlenniye Sputnik) naval intelligence satellites. The Tyklon 2 definitive operational version replaced the 11K67 launch vehicle from 1969 and was an adaptation of the 8K69 (SS-9) two stage ICBM. The IS and US Raketoplan-derived payloads had their own engines for insertion into final orbit. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Arsenal Russian manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Arsenal Design Bureau, Saint Petersburg, Russia. More...

Associated Programs
  • EORSAT Naval forces monitoring. Determines position of enemy naval forces through detection and triangulation of their electromagnetic emissions (radio, radar, etc) More...
  • RORSAT Soviet military nuclear-reactor powered radar naval reconnaissance satellite network. More...

Bibliography
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Home Page (launch records), Harvard University, 1997-present. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • JPL Mission and Spacecraft Library, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1997. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Voevodin, Sergey A, "Sergey A. Voevodin's Reports", VSA072 - Space Apparatus, Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Kamanin, N P, Skritiy kosmos, Infortext, Moscow, 1995.
  • Melnik, T G, Voenno-Kosmicheskiy Siliy, Nauka, Moscow, 1997..
  • Siddiqi, Asif A, The Soviet Space Race With Apollo, University Press of Florida, 2003.

Associated Launch Sites
  • Baikonur Russia's largest cosmodrome, the only one used for manned launches and with facilities for the larger Proton, N1, and Energia launch vehicles. The spaceport ended up on foreign soil after the break-up of Soviet Union. The official designations NIIP-5 and GIK-5 are used in official Soviet histories. It was also universally referred to as Tyuratam by both Soviet military staff and engineers, and the US intelligence agencies. Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union the Russian Federation has insisted on continued use of the old Soviet 'public' name of Baikonur. In its Kazakh (Kazak) version this is rendered Baykonur. More...

US-P Chronology


1961 March 16 - . LV Family: UR-200. Launch Vehicle: UR-200.
  • UR-200 (8K81) launch vehicle development authorised. - . Nation: USSR. Spacecraft: Kosmoplan; IS-A; US-A; US-P; OGCh. An enabling decree was issued on 1 August 1961 by the Central Committee and Politburo. The UR-200 was designed not only to send a thermonuclear warhead over a range of 12,000 km, but also to orbit all of the Kosmoplan military variants: the IS ASAT; the US nuclear-powered naval intelligence satellite; and the Kosmoplan combat re-entry vehicle.

1964 June 18 - .
  • USSR five-year military space plan issued. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Chelomei; Malinovskiy. Spacecraft: Raketoplan; Soyuz R; Zenit-2M; Zenit-4M; US-A; US-P; Spiral OS; MiG 105-11. Ministry of Defence Decree 'On military space programs for 1964-69, including the R spaceplane' was issued. The decree was issued by Defence Ministry Marshal Rodiono Yakovlevich Malinovksiy. Included in this plan were new versions of the automatic Zenit, Morya-1 (US series) spacecraft, the Spiral spaceplane, the Soyuz-R manned combat spacecraft, and others. Chelomei's Raketoplan spaceplane was cancelled.

1964 October 13 - . LV Family: Proton; UR-200.
  • Khrushchev ousted from power. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Chelomei; Khrushchev. Spacecraft: Kosmoplan; OGCh; IS-A; US-P; US-A; LK-1. Summary: Brezhnev faction assumes control of Politubro. Brezhnev was adverse to all projects Khrushchev had supported. These included those of Chelomei and his OKB-52..

1967 July 21 - . LV Family: R-7; Tsiklon.
  • US Project reassigned; R-36-O booster development approved; Yantar-2K and Zvevda 7K-VI approved. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Kozlov. Spacecraft: US-A; US-P; Yantar-2K; Yantar-4K1; Soyuz VI. Decree 715-240 'On the Creation of Space Systems for Naval Reconnaissance Comprising the US sat and the R-36-based booster -further work on the US naval reconnaissance satellite, approval of work on the Yantar-2K, and course of work on 7K-VI Zvezda'.

    An entire family of Yantar spacecraft was proposed by Kozlovís design bureau during the initial development; information on two film return models has been declassified. Yantar was initially derived from the Soyuz spacecraft, including systems developed for the Soyuz VI military model. During design and development this changed until it had very little in common with Soyuz.

    Following numerous problems in the first flight tests of the Soyuz 7K-OK, Kozlov ordered a complete redesign of the 7K-VI manned military spacecraft. The new spacecraft, with a crew of two, would have a total mass of 6.6 tonnes and could operate for a month in orbit. The new design switched the positions of the Soyuz descent module and the orbital modules and was 300 kg too heavy for the standard 11A511 launch vehicle. Therefore Kozlov designed a new variant of the Soyuz launch vehicle, the 11A511M. The project was approved by the Central Committee of the Communist Party, with first flight to be in 1968 and operations to begin in 1969. The booster design, with unknown changes to the basic Soyuz, did not go into full production.


1974 December 24 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 699 - . Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: EORSAT. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: US-P. Decay Date: 1977-10-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 7587 . COSPAR: 1974-103A. Apogee: 440 km (270 mi). Perigee: 428 km (265 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 93.30 min. Summary: Ocean monitoring; exploded 4/17/75..

1975 October 29 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 777 - . Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: EORSAT. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: US-P. Decay Date: 1976-06-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 8416 . COSPAR: 1975-102A. Apogee: 442 km (274 mi). Perigee: 425 km (264 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 93.30 min. Summary: Ocean monitoring; exploded 1/76..

1976 July 2 - . 10:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 838 - . Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: RORSAT. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military naval surveillance radar satellite. Spacecraft: US-P. Decay Date: 1977-08-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 8932 . COSPAR: 1976-063A. Apogee: 440 km (270 mi). Perigee: 428 km (265 mi). Inclination: 65.1000 deg. Period: 93.30 min. Summary: Ocean surveillance. Exploded June/July '76..

1976 November 26 - . 14:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 868 - . Mass: 1,400 kg (3,000 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: RORSAT. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: US-P. Decay Date: 1978-07-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 9561 . COSPAR: 1976-113A. Apogee: 444 km (275 mi). Perigee: 422 km (262 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 93.30 min.

1977 August 24 - . 07:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 937 - . Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: EORSAT. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: US-P. Decay Date: 1978-10-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 10278 . COSPAR: 1977-077A. Apogee: 444 km (275 mi). Perigee: 424 km (263 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 93.30 min. Summary: Ocean monitoring..

1979 April 18 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 1094 - . Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: EORSAT. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: US-P. Decay Date: 1979-09-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 11333 . COSPAR: 1979-033A. Apogee: 442 km (274 mi). Perigee: 426 km (264 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 93.30 min. Summary: Ocean monitoring..

1979 April 25 - . 10:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 1096 - . Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: EORSAT. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: US-P. Decay Date: 1979-11-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 11346 . COSPAR: 1979-036A. Apogee: 442 km (274 mi). Perigee: 428 km (265 mi). Inclination: 65.1000 deg. Period: 93.30 min. Summary: Ocean monitoring..

1980 March 14 - . 10:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 1167 - . Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: EORSAT. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: US-P. Decay Date: 1981-10-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 11729 . COSPAR: 1980-021A. Apogee: 442 km (274 mi). Perigee: 426 km (264 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 93.30 min. Summary: Ocean monitoring..

1980 November 4 - . 15:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 1220 - . Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: EORSAT. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: US-P. Decay Date: 1982-06-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 12054 . COSPAR: 1980-089A. Apogee: 759 km (471 mi). Perigee: 526 km (326 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 97.60 min. Summary: Ocean monitoring..

1981 March 20 - . 23:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 1260 - . Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: EORSAT. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: US-P. Decay Date: 1982-05-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 12364 . COSPAR: 1981-028A. Apogee: 444 km (275 mi). Perigee: 425 km (264 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 93.30 min. Summary: Ocean monitoring..

1981 August 4 - . 08:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 1286 - . Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: EORSAT. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: US-P. Decay Date: 1982-10-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 12631 . COSPAR: 1981-072A. Apogee: 442 km (274 mi). Perigee: 430 km (260 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 93.20 min. Summary: Ocean monitoring..

1981 September 14 - . 20:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 1306 - . Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Program: EORSAT. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: US-P. Decay Date: 1982-07-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 12828 . COSPAR: 1981-089A. Apogee: 424 km (263 mi). Perigee: 168 km (104 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 90.40 min. Summary: Ocean monitoring; replaced Cosmos 1260..

1982 February 11 - . 01:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 1337 - . Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: EORSAT. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: US-P. Decay Date: 1982-07-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 13061 . COSPAR: 1982-010A. Apogee: 444 km (275 mi). Perigee: 426 km (264 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 93.30 min. Summary: Ocean monitoring..

1982 April 29 - . 09:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 1355 - . Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: EORSAT. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: US-P. Decay Date: 1984-03-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 13150 . COSPAR: 1982-038A. Apogee: 295 km (183 mi). Perigee: 277 km (172 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 90.20 min. Summary: Ocean monitoring..

1982 September 4 - . 17:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 1405 - . Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: EORSAT. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: US-P. Decay Date: 1984-01-31 . USAF Sat Cat: 13508 . COSPAR: 1982-088A. Apogee: 443 km (275 mi). Perigee: 425 km (264 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 93.30 min. Summary: Ocean monitoring..

1983 May 7 - . 10:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 1461 - . Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: EORSAT. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: US-P. Decay Date: 1985-05-31 . USAF Sat Cat: 14064 . COSPAR: 1983-044A. Apogee: 803 km (498 mi). Perigee: 574 km (356 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 98.50 min. Summary: Ocean monitoring..

1983 October 29 - . 08:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 1507 - . Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: EORSAT. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: US-P. Decay Date: 1987-08-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 14455 . COSPAR: 1983-110A. Apogee: 325 km (201 mi). Perigee: 298 km (185 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 90.80 min. Summary: Ocean monitoring..

1984 May 30 - . 18:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 1567 - . Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: EORSAT. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: US-P. Decay Date: 1988-04-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 15009 . COSPAR: 1984-053A. Apogee: 369 km (229 mi). Perigee: 353 km (219 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 91.80 min. Summary: Ocean monitoring..

1984 August 7 - . 22:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 1588 - . Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: EORSAT. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: US-P. Decay Date: 1986-02-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 15167 . COSPAR: 1984-083A. Apogee: 347 km (215 mi). Perigee: 331 km (205 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 91.30 min. Summary: Ocean monitoring..

1985 January 23 - . 19:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 1625 - . Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: EORSAT. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: US-P. Decay Date: 1985-01-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 15492 . COSPAR: 1985-008A. Apogee: 390 km (240 mi). Perigee: 118 km (73 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: Ocean monitoring..

1985 April 18 - . 21:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 1646 - . Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: EORSAT. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: US-P. Decay Date: 1987-11-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 15653 . COSPAR: 1985-030A. Apogee: 399 km (247 mi). Perigee: 378 km (234 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 92.30 min. Summary: Ocean monitoring..

1985 September 19 - . 01:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 1682 - . Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: EORSAT. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: US-P. Decay Date: 1986-12-31 . USAF Sat Cat: 16054 . COSPAR: 1985-082A. Apogee: 446 km (277 mi). Perigee: 341 km (211 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 92.40 min. Summary: Ocean surveillance..

1986 February 27 - . 01:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 1735 - . Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: EORSAT. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: US-P. Decay Date: 1988-11-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 16620 . COSPAR: 1986-021A. Apogee: 442 km (274 mi). Perigee: 419 km (260 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 93.20 min. Summary: Ocean surveillance..

1986 March 25 - . 19:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 1737 - . Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: EORSAT. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: US-P. Decay Date: 1986-12-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 16648 . COSPAR: 1986-025A. Apogee: 426 km (264 mi). Perigee: 414 km (257 mi). Inclination: 73.4000 deg. Period: 93.00 min. Summary: Ocean surveillance..

1986 August 4 - . 05:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 1769 - . Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: EORSAT. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: US-P. Decay Date: 1987-09-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 16895 . COSPAR: 1986-059A. Apogee: 383 km (237 mi). Perigee: 287 km (178 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 91.20 min. Summary: Ocean surveillance..

1987 April 8 - . 03:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 1834 - . Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: EORSAT. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: US-P. Decay Date: 1988-10-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 17847 . COSPAR: 1987-031A. Apogee: 415 km (257 mi). Perigee: 402 km (249 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 92.70 min. Summary: Ocean surveillance..

1987 October 10 - . 21:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 1890 - . Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: EORSAT. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: US-P. Decay Date: 1988-12-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 18396 . COSPAR: 1987-086A. Apogee: 415 km (257 mi). Perigee: 402 km (249 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 92.70 min. Summary: Ocean surveillance..

1988 May 28 - . 02:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 1949 - . Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: EORSAT. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: US-P. Decay Date: 1990-04-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 19193 . COSPAR: 1988-045A. Apogee: 415 km (257 mi). Perigee: 402 km (249 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 92.70 min. Summary: Ocean surveillance..

1988 November 18 - . 00:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 1979 - . Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: EORSAT. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: US-P. Decay Date: 1989-12-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 19647 . COSPAR: 1988-101A. Apogee: 415 km (257 mi). Perigee: 402 km (249 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 92.70 min. Summary: Ocean surveillance..

1989 July 24 - . 00:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 2033 - . Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: EORSAT. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: US-P. Decay Date: 1991-01-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 20147 . COSPAR: 1989-058A. Apogee: 322 km (200 mi). Perigee: 196 km (121 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: Ocean surveillance..

1989 September 27 - . 16:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 2046 - . Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: EORSAT. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: US-P. Decay Date: 1991-04-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 20259 . COSPAR: 1989-079A. Apogee: 415 km (257 mi). Perigee: 402 km (249 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 92.70 min. Summary: Ocean surveillance..

1989 November 24 - . 23:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 2051 - . Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: EORSAT. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: US-P. Decay Date: 1990-01-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 20334 . COSPAR: 1989-092A. Apogee: 310 km (190 mi). Perigee: 293 km (182 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 90.60 min. Summary: Ocean surveillance..

1990 March 14 - . 15:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 2060 - . Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: EORSAT. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: US-P. Decay Date: 1991-09-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 20525 . COSPAR: 1990-022A. Apogee: 418 km (259 mi). Perigee: 402 km (249 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 92.80 min. Summary: Ocean surveillance..

1990 August 23 - . 16:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 2096 - . Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: EORSAT. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: US-P. Decay Date: 1992-08-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 20765 . COSPAR: 1990-075A. Apogee: 415 km (257 mi). Perigee: 402 km (249 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 92.70 min. Summary: Ocean surveillance..

1990 November 14 - . 06:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 2103 - . Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: EORSAT. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: US-P. Decay Date: 1991-04-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 20933 . COSPAR: 1990-096A. Apogee: 415 km (257 mi). Perigee: 402 km (249 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 92.70 min. Summary: Ocean surveillance..

1990 December 4 - . 00:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 2107 - . Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: EORSAT. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: US-P. Decay Date: 1991-01-31 . USAF Sat Cat: 20985 . COSPAR: 1990-108A. Apogee: 416 km (258 mi). Perigee: 402 km (249 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 92.80 min. Summary: Ocean surveillance..

1991 January 18 - . 11:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 2122 - . Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: EORSAT. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: US-P. Decay Date: 1993-03-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 21065 . COSPAR: 1991-005A. Apogee: 415 km (257 mi). Perigee: 401 km (249 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 92.70 min. Summary: Ocean surveillance..

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