Encyclopedia Astronautica
US-PU



usp.jpg
US-P
Credit: © Mark Wade
Ukrainian military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. 13 launches, 1993.03.30 (Cosmos 2238) to 2006.06.24 (Cosmos 2421).

The nuclear-powered Pirs system was abandoned in 1988 after a few test flights due to continued reliability problems and international incidents when the reactor cores of the satellites inadvertently crashed to the earth. Since Tselina-2 was accomplishing the naval SIGINT mission, it would seem that the US-P passive design was modified to allow more ship location and targeting capability, probably using systems and software developed for PIRS-1. A universal version of the US design, perhaps designated US-PU, began flying in 1993 in replacement of both the US-A and US-P earlier generation spacecraft. These modernized spacecraft were stationed at 120 degree intervals on the same orbit, probably to provide an improved signal/target localization capability.

Specifications for the second-generation MKRTs system were developed co-operatively by TZ MO, VMP, GUKOS, and TsNII Kometa (Savin) in 1978-1980. Following approval by NTK and VPK, the development was to have begun in the Eleventh Five Year Plan (1981-1985). A resolution of June 1981 called for completion of a draft project for the Phase 1 Pirs-1 system by the end of 1982.

The complete Ideogramma-Pirs system was to have been deployed during the Twelfth Five year plan (1986-1990). The radio and radiotechnical SIGINT mission of the first generation of naval reconnaissance satellites would be handled by the interservice Tselina-2. The project was given the code name Ideogramma-Pirs. Three OKB's had to collaborate on the draft project due to the use of the new Zenit launch vehicle: NPO Energia, PO Arsenal, and TsKBM. The systems technical specification was delivered to the VMF in September 1982.

Following interagency review, Arsenal presented the draft project to the VPK Military-Industrial Commission on 12 December 1982. General Designer Yu F Valov at PO Arsenal was made responsible in 1983 for the overall space system, while TsNII Kometa solved detailed systems problems. Admiral Gorshkov fiercely resisted relinquishing Navy control of the system despite the desire of the leadership for consolidation of space systems. The overall space system specification was delivered to GUKOS in September 1983, followed by a combined technical proposal. A firm program schedule finally emerged in December 1984. Phase 1 was to be deployed by 1990.

The nuclear-powered Pirs system was abandoned in 1988 after a few test flights due to continued reliability problems and international incidents when the reactor cores of the satellites inadvertently crashed to the earth.

AKA: 17F120.
Gross mass: 3,150 kg (6,940 lb).
First Launch: 1993.03.30.
Last Launch: 2006.06.24.
Number: 13 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
See also
  • Tsiklon The R-36 ICBM was the largest ever built and the bogeyman of the Pentagon throughout the Cold War. Dubbed the 'city buster', the 308 silos built were constantly held up by the US Air Force as an awesome threat that justified a new round of American missile or anti-missile systems. On the other hand, the Americans were never motivated to build and deploy corresponding numbers of their equivalent, the liquid propellant Titan 2. Derivatives of the R-36 included the R-36-O orbital bombing system, the Tsiklon-2 and -3 medium orbital launch vehicles, and the replacement R-36M missiles. With the collapse of the Soviet Union, the design and manufacturing facility ended up in independent Ukraine. Accordingly the missile was finally retired in the 1990's, conveniently in accordance with arms reduction agreements with the Americans. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Tsiklon Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. The R-36 ICBM was the largest ever built and the bogeyman of the Pentagon throughout the Cold War. Dubbed the 'city buster', the 308 silos built were constantly held up by the US Air Force as an awesome threat that justified a new round of American missile or anti-missile systems. On the other hand, the Americans were never motivated to build and deploy corresponding numbers of their equivalent, the liquid propellant Titan 2. Derivatives of the R-36 included the R-36-O orbital bombing system, the Tsiklon-2 and -3 medium orbital launch vehicles, and the replacement R-36M missiles. With the collapse of the Soviet Union, the design and manufacturing facility ended up in independent Ukraine. Accordingly the missile was finally retired in the 1990's, conveniently in accordance with arms reduction agreements with the Americans. More...
  • Tsiklon-2 Ukrainian orbital launch vehicle. A government decree of 24 August 1965 ordered development by Yangel of a version of his R-36 rocket to orbit Chelomei's IS (Istrebitel Sputnik) ASAT and US (Upravlenniye Sputnik) naval intelligence satellites. The Tyklon 2 definitive operational version replaced the 11K67 launch vehicle from 1969 and was an adaptation of the 8K69 (SS-9) two stage ICBM. The IS and US Raketoplan-derived payloads had their own engines for insertion into final orbit. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Yuzhnoye Ukrainian manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Yangel Design Bureau, Dnepropetrovsk, Ukraine. More...

Associated Programs
  • EORSAT Naval forces monitoring. Determines position of enemy naval forces through detection and triangulation of their electromagnetic emissions (radio, radar, etc) More...

Bibliography
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Home Page (launch records), Harvard University, 1997-present. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Report (Internet Newsletter), Harvard University, Weekly, 1989 to Present. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • JPL Mission and Spacecraft Library, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1997. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Sorokin, Vladislav, "'Yantarnaya istoriya'", Novosti Kosmonavtiki, 1997, Issue 17, page 57.
  • Voevodin, Sergey A, "Sergey A. Voevodin's Reports", VSA072 - Space Apparatus, Web Address when accessed: here.
  • NASA GSFC Orbital Parameters,
  • National Space Science Center Planetary Page, As of 19 February 1999.. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Melnik, T G, Voenno-Kosmicheskiy Siliy, Nauka, Moscow, 1997..
  • NASA/GSFC Orbital Information Group Website, Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Space-Launcher.com, Orbital Report News Agency. Web Address when accessed: here.

Associated Launch Sites
  • Baikonur Russia's largest cosmodrome, the only one used for manned launches and with facilities for the larger Proton, N1, and Energia launch vehicles. The spaceport ended up on foreign soil after the break-up of Soviet Union. The official designations NIIP-5 and GIK-5 are used in official Soviet histories. It was also universally referred to as Tyuratam by both Soviet military staff and engineers, and the US intelligence agencies. Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union the Russian Federation has insisted on continued use of the old Soviet 'public' name of Baikonur. In its Kazakh (Kazak) version this is rendered Baykonur. More...

US-PU Chronology


1993 March 30 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 2238 - . Payload: US-PU s/n 1. Mass: 3,150 kg (6,940 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: EORSAT. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: US-PU. Duration: 567.00 days. Decay Date: 1994-12-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 22585 . COSPAR: 1993-018A. Apogee: 416 km (258 mi). Perigee: 402 km (249 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 92.70 min. Summary: First launch of new EORSAT, first of at 120 degree intervals on the same orbit with a 0 degree ascending node. Ocean surveillance..

1993 April 28 - . 03:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 2244 - . Payload: US-PU s/n 2. Mass: 3,150 kg (6,940 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: EORSAT. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: US-PU. Duration: 657.00 days. Decay Date: 1995-03-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 22643 . COSPAR: 1993-029A. Apogee: 416 km (258 mi). Perigee: 402 km (249 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 92.80 min. Summary: Second launch of new EORSAT, second of three stationed at 120 degree intervals on the same orbit with a 0 degree ascending node..

1993 July 7 - . 07:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 2258 - . Payload: US-PY s/n 3. Mass: 3,150 kg (6,940 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: EORSAT. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: US-PU. Duration: 603.00 days. Decay Date: 1995-06-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 22709 . COSPAR: 1993-044A. Apogee: 417 km (259 mi). Perigee: 400 km (240 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 92.80 min. Summary: Third launch of new EORSAT, final of three stationed at 120 degree intervals on the same orbit with a 0 degree ascending node. Ocean surveillance..

1993 September 17 - . 00:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 2264 - . Payload: US-PM s/n 4. Mass: 3,150 kg (6,940 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: EORSAT. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: US-PU. Duration: 564.00 days. Decay Date: 1995-08-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 22808 . COSPAR: 1993-060A. Apogee: 417 km (259 mi). Perigee: 401 km (249 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 92.80 min. Summary: EORSAT, first of three to be stationed at 120 degree intervals on the same orbit with a 215 degree ascending node. However cutbacks in program resulted in the constellation not being completed. Ocean surveillance..

1994 November 2 - . 01:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 2293 - . Payload: US-PM s/n 5. Mass: 3,150 kg (6,940 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: EORSAT. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: US-PU. Duration: 497.00 days. Decay Date: 1996-05-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 23336 . COSPAR: 1994-072A. Apogee: 418 km (259 mi). Perigee: 402 km (249 mi). Inclination: 65.0300 deg. Period: 92.78 min. Summary: Second launch of new EORSAT, second of three to be stationed at 120 degree intervals on the same orbit with a 215 degree ascending node. However cutbacks in program resulted in the constellation not being completed. Ocean surveillance..

1995 June 8 - . 04:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 2313 - . Payload: US-PM s/n 6. Mass: 3,150 kg (6,940 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: EORSAT. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: US-PU. Duration: 685.00 days. Decay Date: 1997-07-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 23596 . COSPAR: 1995-028A. Apogee: 419 km (260 mi). Perigee: 410 km (250 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 87.60 min. Summary: EORSAT, first of three to be stationed at 120 degree intervals on the same orbit with a 143 degree ascending node. However cutbacks in program resulted in the constellation not being completed. Ocean surveillance..

1995 December 20 - . 00:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 2326 - . Payload: US-PM s/n 7. Mass: 3,150 kg (6,940 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: EORSAT. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: US-PU. Duration: 660.00 days. Decay Date: 1997-11-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 23748 . COSPAR: 1995-071A. Apogee: 415 km (257 mi). Perigee: 406 km (252 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 87.20 min. Summary: EORSAT, placed in 215 degree ascending node orbital slot. Ocean surveillance; also performed astrophysics research..

1996 December 11 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 2335 - . Payload: US-PM s/n 8. Mass: 3,150 kg (6,940 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: EORSAT. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: US-PU. Decay Date: 1999-01-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 24670 . COSPAR: 1996-069A. Apogee: 418 km (259 mi). Perigee: 403 km (250 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 92.80 min. Summary: EORSAT, second of three to be stationed at 120 degree intervals on the same orbit with a 143 degree ascending node. However cutbacks in program resulted in the constellation not being completed. Still in operation as of December 1997..

1997 December 9 - . 07:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 2347 - . Payload: US-PM s/n 9. Mass: 3,150 kg (6,940 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: EORSAT. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: US-PU. Decay Date: 1999-12-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 25088 . COSPAR: 1997-079A. Apogee: 417 km (259 mi). Perigee: 403 km (250 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 92.80 min. Summary: EORSAT, in the 217 degree ascending node slot. Still in operation as of December 1997..

1999 December 26 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/20. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2. LV Configuration: Tsiklon-2 801 (45082801).
  • Cosmos 2367 - . Payload: US-PM s/n 10. Mass: 3,150 kg (6,940 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VMF. Manufacturer: Arsenal. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: US-PU. Decay Date: 2002-07-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 26040 . COSPAR: 1999-072A. Apogee: 418 km (259 mi). Perigee: 404 km (251 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Passive naval electronic intelligence satellite. The satellite was placed in an initial 147 km x 442 km orbit at 65 degree inclination. The US-PM's propulsion module fired at apogee to circularize the orbit. Replaced the only previous remaining US-PM satellite which ended operations in November and reentered earlier in December 1999.

2001 December 21 - . 04:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/20. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 2383 - . Payload: US-PM s/n 11. Mass: 3,150 kg (6,940 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VMF. Manufacturer: Arsenal. Program: EORSAT. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: US-PU. Decay Date: 2004-03-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 27053 . COSPAR: 2001-057A. Apogee: 415 km (257 mi). Perigee: 404 km (251 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Signal Intelligence Satellite. Launch delayed December 19. The booster put the satellite into an initial orbit of 145 x 405 km x 65.0 deg. At apogee the satellite ignited its own propulsion system to increase velocity by about 70-80 m/s and circularize the orbit.

2004 May 28 - . 06:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/20. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 2405 - . Mass: 3,150 kg (6,940 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VMF. Manufacturer: Arsenal. Program: EORSAT. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: US-PU. Decay Date: 2006-06-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 28350 . COSPAR: 2004-020A. Apogee: 417 km (259 mi). Perigee: 405 km (251 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 92.80 min. Summary: Original reported name Cosmos 2407..

2006 June 24 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/20. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 2421 - . Mass: 3,150 kg (6,940 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VMF. Manufacturer: Arsenal. Program: EORSAT. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: US-PU. Decay Date: 2006-06-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 29246 . COSPAR: 2006-026A. Apogee: 414 km (257 mi). Perigee: 384 km (238 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 92.50 min.

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