Venera 3V (V-72). Others in the 3V / 3MV series had a similar appearance.
Russian Venus probe. 2 launches, 1970.08.17 (Venera 7) to 1970.08.22 (Cosmos 359). Venus lander intended to study the Venusian atmosphere and other phenomena of the planet.
After aerodynamic braking, a parachute was deployed, the capsule antenna was extended, and signals were returned. The capsule was the first man-made object to return data after landing on another planet.
Gross mass: 1,180 kg (2,600 lb).
More... - Chronology...
First Launch: 1970.08.17.
Last Launch: 1970.08.22.
Number: 2 .
Soyuz The Russian Soyuz spacecraft has been the longest-lived, most adaptable, and most successful manned spacecraft design. In production for fifty years, more than 240 have been built and flown on a wide range of missions. The design will remain in use with the international space station well into the 21st century, providing the only manned access to the station after the retirement of the shuttle in 2011. More...
Associated Launch Vehicles
Soyuz Russian orbital launch vehicle. The world's first ICBM became the most often used and most reliable launch vehicle in history. The original core+four strap-on booster missile had a small third stage added to produce the Vostok launch vehicle, with a payload of 5 metric tons. Addition of a larger third stage produced the Voskhod/Soyuz vehicle, with a payload over 6 metric tons. Using this with a fourth stage, the resulting Molniya booster placed communications satellites and early lunar and planetary probes in higher energy trajectories. By the year 2000 over 1,628 had been launched with an unmatched success rate of 97.5% for production models. Improved models providing commercial launch services for international customers entered service in the new millenium, and a new launch pad at Kourou was to be inaugurated in 2009. It appeared that the R-7 could easily still be in service 70 years after its first launch. More...
Molniya 8K78M Russian orbital launch vehicle. Improved Molniya, in variants with Blocks ML, 2BL, or SO-L third stages according to payload. More...
Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
MOM Russian agency overseeing development of spacecraft. Ministry of General Machine Building (Moskva, Russia), Moscow, Russia. More...
Lavochkin Russian manufacturer of rockets and spacecraft. Lavochkin Design Bureau, Moscow, Russia. More...
Venera Russian series of spacecraft that explored the planet Venus. Venera spacecraft made the first soft landings on the surface of Venus and returned the first images from the surface. More...
McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Home Page (launch records), Harvard University, 1997-present. Web Address when accessed: here.
JPL Mission and Spacecraft Library, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1997. Web Address when accessed: here.
Varfolomyev, Timothy, "Soviet Rocketry that Conquered Space - Part 5", Spaceflight, 1998, Volume 40, page 85.
"Otmenenniy Start "Molniya-M"", Novosti Kosmonavtiki, 1997, Issue 1, page 29.
National Space Science Center Planetary Page, As of 19 February 1999.. Web Address when accessed: here.
Associated Launch Sites
Baikonur Russia's largest cosmodrome, the only one used for manned launches and with facilities for the larger Proton, N1, and Energia launch vehicles. The spaceport ended up on foreign soil after the break-up of Soviet Union. The official designations NIIP-5 and GIK-5 are used in official Soviet histories. It was also universally referred to as Tyuratam by both Soviet military staff and engineers, and the US intelligence agencies. Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union the Russian Federation has insisted on continued use of the old Soviet 'public' name of Baikonur. In its Kazakh (Kazak) version this is rendered Baykonur. More...
Venera 3V (V-70) Chronology
1970 August 17 -
05:38 GMT - .
. Launch Complex
: Baikonur LC1
. Launch Pad
: LC1 or LC31. LV Family
. Launch Vehicle
: Molniya 8K78M
- Venera 7 - .
Payload: 3V (V-70) s/n 630. Mass: 1,180 kg (2,600 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Venera. Class: Venus. Type: Venus probe. Spacecraft: Venera 3V (V-70). Decay Date: 1970-12-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 4489 . COSPAR: 1970-060A. Venera 7 was launched from an earth parking orbit towards Venus to study the Venusian atmosphere and other phenomena of the planet. Venera 7 entered the atmosphere of Venus on December 15, 1970, and a landing capsule was jettisoned. After aerodynamic braking, a parachute system was deployed. The capsule antenna was extended, and signals were returned for 35 min. Another 23 min of very weak signals were received after the spacecraft landed on Venus. The capsule was the first man-made object to return data after landing on another planet.
1970 August 22 -
05:06 GMT - .
. Launch Complex
: Baikonur LC31
. LV Family
. Launch Vehicle
: Molniya 8K78M
: The escape stage Block L's engine 11D33 was late igniting and cut off early at 25 seconds after firing due to abnormal operation of the sequencer and a DC transformer failure.. Failed Stage
- Cosmos 359 - .
Payload: 3V (V-70) s/n 631. Mass: 1,180 kg (2,600 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Venera. Class: Venus. Type: Venus probe. Spacecraft: Venera 3V (V-70). Decay Date: 1970-11-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 4501 . COSPAR: 1970-065A. Apogee: 908 km (564 mi). Perigee: 195 km (121 mi). Inclination: 51.2000 deg. Period: 95.70 min. Summary: Probable Venus probe failure..
1970 December 15 -
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