Encyclopedia Astronautica
Yamal



yamal.jpg
Yamal
Credit: USAF Phillips Laboratory
yamal101.jpg
Yamal-101
Credit: NPO PM
yamal100.jpg
Yamal-100
Credit: NPO PM
Russian communications satellite. 4 launches, 1999.09.06 (Yamal 101) to 2003.11.24 (Yamal-200 KA-2). The Yamal communications satellite bus was developed by RKK Energia for Gazprom.

Due to their compact size and low mass, Yamal spacecraft could be launched two at a time by a Proton booster.

Initial plans were to deploy two vehicles, one at 75 degrees E and one at 19.50 West, in a 1997 launch. This was delayed to 1999, but they were successful and followed by a second pair in 2003. Yamal was the smallest of the proposed post-Soviet geosynchronous spacecraft with a total mass of 1.3-1.4 metric tons, including a payload mass of up to 310 kg. The box-like spacecraft bus carried two solar arrays capable of producing 2.4 kW at the end of the 10-year design life. A single primary dish antenna supported the nine planned C-band transponders. A combination of liquid and ion engines were used for spacecraft attitude and orbit maintenance. The spacecraft as finally flown was equipped with 12 C-band transponders built by Space Systems/Loral and Fakel SPD-70 plasma thrusters for inclination control.

Gross mass: 1,360 kg (2,990 lb).
First Launch: 1999.09.06.
Last Launch: 2003.11.24.
Number: 4 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
See also
  • Proton The Proton launch vehicle has been the medium-lift workhorse of the Soviet and Russian space programs for over forty years. Although constantly criticized within Russia for its use of toxic and ecologically-damaging storable liquid propellants, it has out-lasted all challengers, and no replacement is in sight. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Proton The Proton launch vehicle has been the medium-lift workhorse of the Soviet and Russian space programs for over forty years. Although constantly criticized within Russia for its use of toxic and ecologically-damaging storable liquid propellants, it has out-lasted all challengers, and no replacement is in sight. Development of the Proton began in 1962 as a two-stage vehicle that could be used to launch large military payloads or act as a ballistic missile with a 100 megaton nuclear warhead. The ICBM was cancelled in 1965, but development of a three-stage version for the crash program to send a Soviet man around the moon began in 1964. The hurried development caused severe reliability problems in early production. But these were eventually solved, and from the 1970's the Proton was used to launch all Russian space stations, medium- and geosynchronous orbit satellites, and lunar and planetary probes. More...
  • Proton-K/DM-2M This four stage version uses the Block DM-2M / 11S861-01 upper stage, which has its own self-contained guidance unit. This reduces payload but does not require the spacecraft's guidance system to provide steering commands to booster. Used for launches of Russian geosynchronous satellites from 1994 on. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Korolev Russian manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Korolev Design Bureau, Kaliningrad, Russia. More...
  • Gazprom Russian agency overseeing development of spacecraft. Gazprom, Russia. More...

Bibliography
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Home Page (launch records), Harvard University, 1997-present. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Report (Internet Newsletter), Harvard University, Weekly, 1989 to Present. Web Address when accessed: here.

Associated Launch Sites
  • Baikonur Russia's largest cosmodrome, the only one used for manned launches and with facilities for the larger Proton, N1, and Energia launch vehicles. The spaceport ended up on foreign soil after the break-up of Soviet Union. The official designations NIIP-5 and GIK-5 are used in official Soviet histories. It was also universally referred to as Tyuratam by both Soviet military staff and engineers, and the US intelligence agencies. Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union the Russian Federation has insisted on continued use of the old Soviet 'public' name of Baikonur. In its Kazakh (Kazak) version this is rendered Baykonur. More...

Yamal Chronology


1999 September 6 - . 16:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2M. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2M 388-02.
  • Yamal 101 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AO Gazco. Manufacturer: Korolev. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Yamal. USAF Sat Cat: 25896 . COSPAR: 1999-047A. Apogee: 36,298 km (22,554 mi). Perigee: 35,503 km (22,060 mi). Inclination: 2.4000 deg. Period: 1,441.90 min. The first two Yamal communications satellites were placed into a 197 km x 36,311 km x 49.3 degree transfer orbit The DM-2M fourth stage made two successful burns, placing the satellites in circular 36,000 km geosynchronous orbits. Yamal 101 reportedly ran into problems after it was deployed. RKK Energia built the new Yamal satellites for AO Gazcom of Moscow, a joint venture of RKKE and RAO Gazprom, the Russian natural gas monopoly. The two satellites will support internal communications for RAO Gazprom. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 89 deg E in 1999. As of 30 August 2001 located at 112.86 deg E drifting at 1.484 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 42.96E drifting at 1.484W degrees per day.
  • Yamal 102 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: AO Gazco. Manufacturer: Korolev. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Yamal. Completed Operations Date: 1999-09-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 25897 . COSPAR: 1999-047B. Apogee: 35,802 km (22,246 mi). Perigee: 35,772 km (22,227 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Summary: Geosynchronous communications satellite. Stationed at 90 deg E. As of 5 September 2001 located at 89.85 deg E drifting at 0.005 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 89.78E drifting at 0.010W degrees per day..

2003 November 24 - . 06:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2M. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2M 407-02.
  • Yamal-200 KA-1 - . Mass: 1,360 kg (2,990 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: Gazprom. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Yamal. USAF Sat Cat: 28089 . COSPAR: 2003-053A. Apogee: 35,799 km (22,244 mi). Perigee: 35,776 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Summary: Two geosynchronous communications satellites launched for Gazprom. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 49.00E drifting at 0.012E degrees per day..
  • Yamal-200 KA-2 - . Mass: 1,320 kg (2,910 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: Gazprom. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Yamal. USAF Sat Cat: 28094 . COSPAR: 2003-053F. Apogee: 35,797 km (22,243 mi). Perigee: 35,777 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 0.0300 deg. Period: 1,436.13 min. Summary: As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 90.00E drifting at 0.016W degrees per day..

Home - Browse - Contact
© / Conditions for Use