Soviet reconnaissance satellites. Top row: Zenit-2, Zenit-4, Advanced Zenit with aerodynamic orientation; Middle Row: Yantar 1K, Yantar 2K, Orlets-1 with multiple return capsules; bottom row, Buran-serviced pallet-based satellite; Yantar 4KS electrooptical
Russian military surveillance satellite. Cancelled 1991. Improved military photo-reconnaissance satellite, using the basic Yantar-4K1 bus. Boost by the Zenit-2 launch vehicle would have allowed 22 film return capsules to be used over a 180 day mission.
Improved military photo-reconnaissance satellite. Although using the basic Yantar-4K1 bus, the Yantar-4K2 would be launched by the Zenit-2 launch vehicle, allowing the number of precision-landing film return capsules to be increased to 22, and the duration in orbit to be increased to 120 to 180 days.
Flight trials of the Yantar-2K indicated the satellite was not capable of providing strategic warning of attack. A meeting of the Council of Chief Designers at TsSKB in May 1977 reviewed alternative approaches. Three additional variants were to be developed, one of them the high resolution Yantar-4K. The project was to be implemented in two phases: the Yantar-4K1, launched by the existing Soyuz-U launch vehicle, and the Yantar-4K2, to be launched by the new more powerful Zenit launch vehicle.
TsSKB's revised panoramic camera system was developed for detailed broad spectrum reconnaissance and survey. Development was begun in April 1979. The draft project was completed at the end of 1980. Before the Yantar-4K2 could fly, the Soviet Union experienced financial problems, then dissolved completely. The booster for which it was designed was now built in a foreign country (the Ukraine), and the project was abandoned.
AKA: Yantar-4; 11F695; Kobalt.
More... - Chronology...
Gross mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb).
Associated Launch Vehicles
Zenit Zenit was to be a modular new generation medium Soviet launch vehicle, replacing the various ICBM-derived launch vehicles in use since the 1960's (Tsiklon and Soyuz). A version of the first stage was used as strap-ons for the cancelled Energia heavy booster. But it was built by Yuzhnoye in the Ukraine; when the Soviet Union broke up planned large-scale production for the Soviet military was abandoned (Angara development was begun as an indigenous alternative). Launch pads were completed only at Baikonur; those at Plesetsk were never finished and are planned to be completed as Angara pads. However the vehicle found new life as a commercial launch vehicle, launched from a sea platform by an American/Ukrainian consortium. More...
Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
Kozlov Russian manufacturer of rockets and spacecraft. Kozlov Central Specialized Design Bureau, Samara, Russia. More...
McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Report (Internet Newsletter), Harvard University, Weekly, 1989 to Present. Web Address when accessed: here.
JPL Mission and Spacecraft Library, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1997. Web Address when accessed: here.
Voevodin, Sergey A, "Sergey A. Voevodin's Reports", VSA072 - Space Apparatus, Web Address when accessed: here.
Grahn, Sven, Sven Grahn's Space History Pages, Web Address when accessed: here.
Sorokin, V, "Yantarnaya istoriya-2", Novosti kosmonavtiki, No. 11, 1999, p. 71..
1977 May -
- Council of Chief Designers reconsiders Yantar Soviet reconnsat designs - .
Nation: USSR. Spacecraft: Yantar-2K; Yantar-4K1; Yantar-4K2; Orlets-1; Orlets-2; Yantar-6K; Yantar-6KS; Yantar-4KS1. Flight trials of the Yantar-2K indicated the satellite was not capable of providing strategic warning of attack. The planned Yantar-6K series, in development since 1969, were overweight and behind schedule. A meeting of the Council of Chief Designers at TsSKB reviewed alternative approaches. It was decided that three variants of the Yantar-2K were to be developed, one of them the high resolution Yantar-4K.
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