Encyclopedia Astronautica
Yantar-4KS1



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Yantar E1
Credit: © Carsten Wiedemann
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Yantar S1
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Yantar 4K
Credit: TsSKB
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Yantar S1
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Yantar 4KS
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Yantar 4E1
Credit: TsSKB
Russian military electro-optical surveillance satellite. Operational, first launched 1982.12.28.

The Yantar-2K was not capable of providing strategic warning of attack. Therefore three additional variants were developed, one of them the detailed electro-optical and operational reconnaissance satellite Yantar-4KS. A resolution of the chief designers dated 1 July 1977 began work on the project; this was confirmed by decree # 7-3 of the Soviet Ministers and Communist Party Central Committee dated 4 January 1978. The spacecraft was designed to relay visual and infrared band images via a digital data link to the planned Potok-Luch GKRSS satellite system.

There were two phases to the project plan. The first phase spacecraft, the Yantar-4KS1, would be launched by the Soyuz-U2 launch vehicle, begin flight trials in 1979, with the system to be accepted into the military by 1981. Phase 2 would be the more capable Yantar-4KS2, launched by the more powerful Zenit launch vehicle, with flight trials to begin in 1983.

Development was slow because of the state of Soviet digital electronics technology. The structure and wire harnesses for the first spacecraft were completed in 1978, but delays in the electronics meant that flight trials could not begin until the end of 1982. But the very first trials flight, in conjunction with the first Potok communications relay satellite, proved the worth of the system, with immediate operational use of the imagery. Yantar-4KS1 was accepted into military service in 1985.

On 1 June 1983 the Yantar-4KS2 was cancelled and it was decided to modernize the Yantar-4KS1 instead. Flight trials of the improved model began in 1986, with flight times of 238 and 259 days, versus the maximum 207 days of the unimproved version. Further changes were an evolutionary process, with each satellite flown having improved technical characteristics and longer service life. After the fall of the Soviet Union, the satellites were being operated for over a year before having their mission terminated, despite a switch from the Soyuz-U2 to the less capable Soyuz-U launch vehicle. Typical orbital profile of the satellites was: inclination 64.9 degrees with an altitude of 230-280 km or 180-270 km.

AKA: Neman; 11F694; Terilen.
Gross mass: 6,620 kg (14,590 lb).
First Launch: 1982.12.28.
Last Launch: 2009.11.20.
Number: 27 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
See also
  • Soyuz The Russian Soyuz spacecraft has been the longest-lived, most adaptable, and most successful manned spacecraft design. In production for fifty years, more than 240 have been built and flown on a wide range of missions. The design will remain in use with the international space station well into the 21st century, providing the only manned access to the station after the retirement of the shuttle in 2011. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Soyuz Russian orbital launch vehicle. The world's first ICBM became the most often used and most reliable launch vehicle in history. The original core+four strap-on booster missile had a small third stage added to produce the Vostok launch vehicle, with a payload of 5 metric tons. Addition of a larger third stage produced the Voskhod/Soyuz vehicle, with a payload over 6 metric tons. Using this with a fourth stage, the resulting Molniya booster placed communications satellites and early lunar and planetary probes in higher energy trajectories. By the year 2000 over 1,628 had been launched with an unmatched success rate of 97.5% for production models. Improved models providing commercial launch services for international customers entered service in the new millenium, and a new launch pad at Kourou was to be inaugurated in 2009. It appeared that the R-7 could easily still be in service 70 years after its first launch. More...
  • Soyuz 11A511U Russian standardised man-rated orbital launch vehicle derived from the original R-7 ICBM of 1957. It has been launched in greater numbers than any orbital launch vehicle in history. Not coincidentally, it has been the most reliable as well. After over 40 years service in Russia, ESA built a new launch pad at Kourou which will keep it in service from three launch sites in three countries well into the mid-21st Century. More...
  • Soyuz 11A511U2 Russian orbital launch vehicle. Soyuz 11A511U2 used synthetic kerosene ('Sintin') in first stage for launch of premium reconnaisance satellite and manned payloads requiring just a bit more payload than the standard 11A511 could offer. Further use of the 11A511U2 abandoned in 1996 due to Sintin production stoppage. Later Soyuz spacecraft launched on standard Soyuz, with reduced payload and rendezvous with Mir in lower orbit accepted. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • MOM Russian agency overseeing development of spacecraft. Ministry of General Machine Building (Moskva, Russia), Moscow, Russia. More...
  • Kozlov Russian manufacturer of rockets and spacecraft. Kozlov Central Specialized Design Bureau, Samara, Russia. More...

Bibliography
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Home Page (launch records), Harvard University, 1997-present. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Report (Internet Newsletter), Harvard University, Weekly, 1989 to Present. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • JPL Mission and Spacecraft Library, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1997. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Voevodin, Sergey A, "Sergey A. Voevodin's Reports", VSA072 - Space Apparatus, Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Grahn, Sven, Sven Grahn's Space History Pages, Web Address when accessed: here.
  • NASA GSFC Orbital Parameters,
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Launch Log, October 1998. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Melnik, T G, Voenno-Kosmicheskiy Siliy, Nauka, Moscow, 1997..
  • Sorokin, V, "Yantarnaya istoriya-2", Novosti kosmonavtiki, No. 11, 1999, p. 71..
  • NASA/GSFC Orbital Information Group Website, Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Space-Launcher.com, Orbital Report News Agency. Web Address when accessed: here.

Associated Launch Sites
  • Baikonur Russia's largest cosmodrome, the only one used for manned launches and with facilities for the larger Proton, N1, and Energia launch vehicles. The spaceport ended up on foreign soil after the break-up of Soviet Union. The official designations NIIP-5 and GIK-5 are used in official Soviet histories. It was also universally referred to as Tyuratam by both Soviet military staff and engineers, and the US intelligence agencies. Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union the Russian Federation has insisted on continued use of the old Soviet 'public' name of Baikonur. In its Kazakh (Kazak) version this is rendered Baykonur. More...
  • Plesetsk Plesetsk was the Soviet Union's northern cosmodrome, used for polar orbit launches of mainly military satellites, and was at one time the busiest launch centre in the world. The collapse of the Soviet Union put the main launch site of Baikonur in Kazakh territory. It now seems that once the Proton rocket is retired, Baikonur will be abandoned and Plesetsk will be Russia's primary launch centre. Upgrades to existing launch facilities will allow advanced versions of the Soyuz rocket and the new Angara launch vehicle to be launched from Plesetsk. Plesetsk's major drawback was the lower net payload in geosynchronous orbit from a northern latitude launch site. However Russia is planning to remove the disadvantage by looping geosynchronous satellites around the moon, using lunar gravity to make the necessary orbital plane change. More...

Yantar-4KS1 Chronology

  • Council of Chief Designers reconsiders Yantar Soviet reconnsat designs - . Nation: USSR. Spacecraft: Yantar-2K; Yantar-4K1; Yantar-4K2; Orlets-1; Orlets-2; Yantar-6K; Yantar-6KS; Yantar-4KS1. Flight trials of the Yantar-2K indicated the satellite was not capable of providing strategic warning of attack. The planned Yantar-6K series, in development since 1969, were overweight and behind schedule. A meeting of the Council of Chief Designers at TsSKB reviewed alternative approaches. It was decided that three variants of the Yantar-2K were to be developed, one of them the high resolution Yantar-4K.

1982 December 28 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1426 - . Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-4KS1. Duration: 69.00 days. Decay Date: 1983-03-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 13745 . COSPAR: 1982-120A. Apogee: 384 km (238 mi). Perigee: 200 km (120 mi). Inclination: 50.6000 deg. Period: 90.40 min. Summary: Photo/digital surveillance..

1984 May 14 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Cosmos 1552 - . Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-4KS1. Duration: 173.00 days. Decay Date: 1984-11-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 14971 . COSPAR: 1984-045A. Apogee: 320 km (190 mi). Perigee: 180 km (110 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: Photo/digital surveillance..

1985 March 25 - . 10:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Cosmos 1643 - . Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-4KS1. Duration: 207.00 days. Decay Date: 1985-10-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 15634 . COSPAR: 1985-026A. Apogee: 276 km (171 mi). Perigee: 182 km (113 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 89.10 min. Summary: Photo/digital surveillance..

1986 February 7 - . 08:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Cosmos 1731 - . Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-4KS1. Duration: 238.00 days. Decay Date: 1986-10-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 16589 . COSPAR: 1986-013A. Apogee: 263 km (163 mi). Perigee: 233 km (144 mi). Inclination: 64.7000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: Photo/digital surveillance..

1986 August 6 - . 13:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Cosmos 1770 - . Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-4KS1. Duration: 180.00 days. Decay Date: 1987-02-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 16897 . COSPAR: 1986-060A. Apogee: 292 km (181 mi). Perigee: 234 km (145 mi). Inclination: 64.7000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: Photo/digital surveillance..

1986 December 26 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Cosmos 1810 - . Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-4KS1. Duration: 259.00 days. Decay Date: 1987-09-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 17262 . COSPAR: 1986-102A. Apogee: 275 km (170 mi). Perigee: 224 km (139 mi). Inclination: 64.7000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: Photo/digital surveillance..

1987 April 16 - . 06:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Cosmos 1836 - . Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-4KS1. Duration: 230.00 days. Decay Date: 1987-12-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 17876 . COSPAR: 1987-033A. Apogee: 289 km (179 mi). Perigee: 236 km (146 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: Photo/digital surveillance..

1987 September 11 - . 02:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Cosmos 1881 - . Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-4KS1. Duration: 201.00 days. Decay Date: 1988-03-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 18343 . COSPAR: 1987-076A. Apogee: 294 km (182 mi). Perigee: 228 km (141 mi). Inclination: 64.7000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: Photo/digital surveillance..

1988 March 30 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Cosmos 1936 - . Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-4KS1. Duration: 49.00 days. Decay Date: 1988-05-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 19015 . COSPAR: 1988-027A. Apogee: 266 km (165 mi). Perigee: 182 km (113 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Summary: Photo/digital surveillance..

1988 July 9 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2. FAILURE: Failure. Failed Stage: U.
1988 November 11 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2. FAILURE: Failure. Failed Stage: U.
1989 March 23 - . 12:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Cosmos 2007 - . Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-4KS1. Duration: 180.00 days. Decay Date: 1989-09-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 19900 . COSPAR: 1989-024A. Apogee: 262 km (162 mi). Perigee: 224 km (139 mi). Inclination: 64.7000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: Photo/digital surveillance..

1989 November 17 - . 10:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Cosmos 2049 - . Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-4KS1. Duration: 214.00 days. Decay Date: 1990-06-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 20320 . COSPAR: 1989-088A. Apogee: 251 km (155 mi). Perigee: 232 km (144 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Summary: Photo/digital surveillance..

1990 April 13 - . 18:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 2072 - . Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-4KS1. Duration: 225.00 days. Decay Date: 1990-11-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 20568 . COSPAR: 1990-033A. Apogee: 270 km (160 mi). Perigee: 232 km (144 mi). Inclination: 64.7000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: Photo/digital surveillance..

1990 December 21 - . 06:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Cosmos 2113 - . Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-4KS1. Duration: 172.00 days. Decay Date: 1991-06-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 21026 . COSPAR: 1990-113A. Apogee: 261 km (162 mi). Perigee: 225 km (139 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: Photo/digital surveillance..

1991 July 10 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Cosmos 2153 - . Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-4KS1. Duration: 247.00 days. Decay Date: 1992-03-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 21560 . COSPAR: 1991-049A. Apogee: 267 km (165 mi). Perigee: 182 km (113 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Summary: Photo/digital surveillance..

1992 April 8 - . 12:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Cosmos 2183 - . Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-4KS1. Duration: 314.00 days. Decay Date: 1993-02-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 21928 . COSPAR: 1992-018A. Apogee: 289 km (179 mi). Perigee: 237 km (147 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: Photo/digital surveillance..

1992 December 9 - . 11:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Cosmos 2223 - . Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-4KS1. Duration: 372.00 days. Decay Date: 1993-12-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 22260 . COSPAR: 1992-087A. Apogee: 271 km (168 mi). Perigee: 238 km (147 mi). Inclination: 64.6000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: Photo/digital surveillance..

1993 November 5 - . 08:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Cosmos 2267 - . Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-4KS1. Duration: 418.00 days. Decay Date: 1994-12-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 22904 . COSPAR: 1993-071A. Apogee: 281 km (174 mi). Perigee: 228 km (141 mi). Inclination: 70.4000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: Photo/digital surveillance..

1994 April 28 - . 17:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Cosmos 2280 - . Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-4KS1. Duration: 316.00 days. Decay Date: 1995-03-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 23095 . COSPAR: 1994-025A. Apogee: 283 km (175 mi). Perigee: 233 km (144 mi). Inclination: 70.4000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: Photo/digital surveillance..

1994 December 29 - . 11:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Cosmos 2305 - . Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-4KS1. Duration: 354.00 days. Decay Date: 1995-12-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 23453 . COSPAR: 1994-088A. Apogee: 288 km (178 mi). Perigee: 231 km (143 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: Photo/digital surveillance..

1995 September 29 - . 04:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 2320 - . Mass: 7,000 kg (15,400 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-4KS1. Duration: 365.00 days. Decay Date: 1996-09-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 23674 . COSPAR: 1995-051A. Apogee: 372 km (231 mi). Perigee: 235 km (146 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Summary: Photo/digital surveillance..

1998 June 25 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 2359 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Manufacturer: Kozlov. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-4KS1. Decay Date: 1999-07-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 25376 . COSPAR: 1998-039A. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi). Perigee: 239 km (148 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.90 min. Summary: Photo/digital surveillance. Entered an initial 170 x 290 km x 64.9 deg initial orbit. It manoeuvred to its operational orbit of 240 x 302 km x 64.9 deg on June 27..

2000 May 3 - . 13:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U. LV Configuration: Soyuz 11A511U A15000-649.
  • Cosmos 2370 - . Payload: Neman. Mass: 6,700 kg (14,700 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Manufacturer: Kozlov. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-4KS1. Decay Date: 2001-05-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 26354 . COSPAR: 2000-023A. Apogee: 312 km (194 mi). Perigee: 244 km (152 mi). Inclination: 64.7252 deg. Period: 90.00 min. Military Observation. Advanced imaging reconnaissance satellite. Relays digital imagery to earth via geostationary comsats. The last such satellite, Cosmos 2359, reentered in July 1999 after one year in orbit. The Soyuz-U launcher placed it in a 183 x 277 km x 64.8 deg initial orbit; it raised altitude to 240 x 300 km about 24 hr after launch.

2006 June 15 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U. LV Configuration: Soyuz-U 096.
  • Resurs DK-1 - . Mass: 7,250 kg (15,980 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: Kozlov. Program: Resurs. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-4KS1. USAF Sat Cat: 29228 . COSPAR: 2006-021A. Apogee: 585 km (363 mi). Perigee: 355 km (220 mi). Inclination: 69.9000 deg. Period: 94.00 min. Civilian remote sensing satellite with a one-meter-resolution-class Geoton-1 camera payload.that relayed its data to the ground via a digital link. It was based on the Terilen/Neman class military reconnaissance satellite in use since the 1980s, using the Yantar satellite bus.

2008 July 26 - . 18:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz-2-1B.
  • Cosmos 2441 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: KVR. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-4KS1. USAF Sat Cat: 33272 . COSPAR: 2008-037A. Apogee: 735 km (456 mi). Perigee: 711 km (441 mi). Inclination: 98.3000 deg. Period: 99.20 min. First in the Persona series of Russian military imaging reconnaisance satellites. The initial orbit was 195 x 726 km x 98.3 deg. The spacecraft maneuvered itself into its operational sun-synchronous orbit on 31 July. Reportedly the satellite married the Yantar electro-optical bus with subsystems developed for the abandoned Arkon-1 reconnsaisance satellite.

2009 November 20 - . 10:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 2455 - . Payload: Lotos-S. Nation: Russia. Agency: KVR. Spacecraft: Yantar-4KS1. USAF Sat Cat: 36095 . COSPAR: 2009-063A. Apogee: 908 km (564 mi). Perigee: 902 km (560 mi). Inclination: 67.2000 deg. Period: 103.10 min. First Lotos-S electronic intelligence satellite, built by TsSKB-Progress, Samara and KB Arsenal, Saint Petersburg, using the same bus as the Resurs-DK optical remote sensing satellites. Maneuvered from an initial orbit of 199 km x 904 km x 67.2 deg to operational orbit of 903 km x 906 km on 23 November.

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