Encyclopedia Astronautica
Yantar-2K



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Yantar-2K Cutaway
Credit: Dmitry Pieson
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Yantar 2K
Russian military surveillance satellite. 30 launches, 1974.05.23 (Yantar-2K failure.) to 1983.06.28 (Cosmos 1471).

Yantar was the Soviet Union's second series of photo reconnaissance satellites, succeeding the Zenit series in the primary film reconnaissance role. Yantars were identified in the West as 'Fourth Generation Photo Reconnaissance Satellite'. In comparison with the Zenit series, the Yantar was equipped with maneuvering engines to change the spacecraft's orbit, thereby providing more flexibility and surprise in photographing targets of interest. In common with the Zenit it was equipped with a large re-entry capsule which returned the camera and primary electronics for reuse. However it also had two small capsules for return of film before return of the main capsule. The design lifetime of Yantar was 30 days, as opposed to the 12 days of the Zenit. The SpK capsules would typically make interim film deliveries on the tenth and eighteenth days of flight.

The Yantar project was first assigned to Yangel's KB Yuzhnoye in the period 1964-1967. The DS satellites of Yuzhnoye (Chief Constructor V M Kovtunenko) solved problems related to the Yantar series. But Yuzhnoye was too busy building ICBM's for the Soviet Strategic Rocket Forces. So Kozlov's Filial 1 of OKB-1 took up the project after a delay in 1967 to 1969.

The approval for development of Yantar was contained in an omnibus Central Committee decree in July 1967. An entire family of Yantar spacecraft was proposed by Kozlov's design bureau during the initial development; information on two film return models has been declassified. Yantar was initially derived from the Soyuz spacecraft, including systems developed for the cancelled Soyuz VI military model. During design and development this changed until it had very little in common with Soyuz.

Yantar development was plagued with several delays. The satellite was initially designed for launch by the Soyuz 11A511M launch vehicle, and Yantar-2K test-construction work began in 1970 . First equipment tests occurred on Zenit flights (by 1978 65 experimental Yantar instruments had been tested on Zenit). However the decision to standardize Soyuz launch vehicles to a common 11A511U version led to redesign and a delay in the first launch of the new spacecraft until after 1973. Even so neither the Kondor control system or the SpK film return capsules were ready when the launch vehicle was.

In February 1973 flight tests began of Yantar systems. The first attempted launch in May 1974 resulted in the launch vehicle being destroyed at third stage ignition. The first two successful Yantar flights used the Sokol control system from Zenit, in place of the VNIIEM-3M computer originally developed for the 11N6110. The second test flight resulted in successful return of the film. However a string of problems and failures then ensued. Tests of the production version began in September 1975. Six were flown, of which four completed their programs. The first fully equipped spacecraft did not fly until February 1976. The first full-configuration, fully successful flight finally came in April 1977. An acceptance test flight in October 1977 led to the Yantar-2K being accepted into Red Army service in May 1978.

The Yantar 2K featured double the duration and film capacity of earlier systems. This was combined with improved operational dissemination and use of information. Kozlov was the prime contractor, with the following major subcontractors:

  • Gyroscope package: NII Priborostroenniy
  • Radio altimeter: TsKB Geofizika
  • Astro-tracker: NPO ELAS

Many original technical solutions were required to achieve optimal results and high reliability without sacrificing payload, since the Yantar-2K was mass-limited to launch by a Soyuz launch vehicle. The following technical problems had to be solved:

  • Vertical arrangement of components
  • Incorporation of the photographic apparatus Zhemchug-4
  • Specialized data processors for use by autonomous landing capsules
  • Control system, capable of:
    • Autonomous operations of long duration able to conduct planned work even in the presence of highly maneuverable, non-co-operative satellites
    • Acquire and analyze data on condition of satellite equipment operations
    • Salyut-3M computer to acquire burst transmission command instructions and translate them into complex commands to on-board systems
    • Automatic control of on-board systems, including pre-programmed failure modes taking into account built-in performance reserves
  • Solar panel development, including use of the panels and other external devices to compensate for aerodynamic moments
  • Equipment for high altitude navigation data
  • 3 axis stabilization of optical axis on the target, including low altitude (140 km) pointing
  • Development of completely new control methods - including ballistic programs, co-ordinate-time methods of control, landing capsule sub-programs.

The Yantar consisted of three modules, which formed a truncated cone with a half-angle of 12 degrees. From bottom to top these modules were:

  • AO - Agregatniy Otsek - Equipment Section. This section provided propulsion and electrical power to the spacecraft. It was descended from the Soyuz instrument section but by the completion of development had little in common with Soyuz systems. It consisted of:
    • KDU maneuvering system. The primary 11D430 engine burned storable N2O4/UDMH propellants pressure-fed at a 1.86 O:F ratio. Nominal propellant load was 680 kg but it could be varied according to mission from 300 to 900 kg. 3.65 kg of helium was stored in spherical tanks at 3.5-5 Mpa for pressure feed of the propellants. Dry mass of the entire system was 375 kg, with an average thrust of 300 kgf. Nominal burn time was 700 seconds, with 50 restarts and a specific impulse of 307 sec. The chamber pressure was 0.9 MPa.
    • Four URD orientation engine modules as follows:
      • Two URD-I modules with:
        • Two 11D431 engines with 0.6 kgf rated for 150,000 firings and 10,000 seconds of operation
        • One 11D446 engine with 5.3 kgf rated for 40,000 firings and 4,000 seconds of operation
        • One 11D428 engine of 11.2 kgf rated for 40,000 firings and 2,000 seconds of operation
      • Two URD-II modules with:
        • One 11D446 engine
        • One 11D428 engine
    • BR-91Ts-1 telemetry system
    • 11M243 solar array actuators controlling two four-panel movable solar panels
    • Batteries
    • AO-Ya antenna
    • Grafit-Ya radio control system
    • Thermal radiators.

  • PO - Pribornniy Otsek - Instrument Section. This housed expendable electronics (the primary spacecraft computer was recovered with the Descent Section). Systems in the PO included:

    • Kondor attitude control system.
    • Data encryption and transmission system
    • Thermal control system
    • Commutator module
    • Electric supply system
    • BR-91Ts-1 telemetry system
    • Data processing system
    • Kvadrat orientation gyroscope system
    • Thermal radiators

  • OSA - Otsek Spetsialnoi Apparaturi - Special Equipment Section. This section was returned to Earth at the completion of the mission, returning the Zhemchug-4 camera and Salyut-3M primary computer for reuse. External to the conical re-entry capsule were two smaller spherical re-entry capsules for interim return of film during the mission, a toroidal instrument unit containing sensors that documented the altitude and position of each photo, and a movable cover to shield the camera from the sun when not in use. The systems included:

    • Zhemchug-4 photographic system with the primary film cassettes. This product of PO Krasnogorskiy Zavod of the Ministry of Defense Industry had been used in earlier models of the Zenit reconnaissance satellite but was repackaged for use in Yantar.
    • Photo system electronics
    • Film transport system for moving film into landing capsules
    • Kondor control system
    • Kalina synchronization unit
    • Program-timing unit
    • Salyut-3M spacecraft primary computer built by BTsVM
    • Thermal control system
    • Descent and landing system with:
      • 8 x 11D445 orientation engines in 4 groups. Each engine had an average thrust of 9.4 kgf and was rated for 10,000 burns and 900 seconds of operation. Propellants were N2O4/UDMH, pressure fed by nitrogen stored at 35.0 MPa.
      • Gyroscopic guidance system
      • Radio altimeter
      • Parachute system
      • 11D863 soft landing engine suspended in the parachute as had been developed for Voskhod. The 35 kg solid-fuel engine had four-nozzles, and delivered 10,000 kgf for 0.25 seconds, providing 8 m/sec of deceleration to provide a zero-velocity landing. Engine chamber pressure was 17 Mpa. The 0.28 m diameter engine had a length of 0.64m. <./DL>
      • Half-spherical heat shield
      • Camera system cover
      • Grafit-Ya system antenna
      • Infrared horizon sensors

    • Toroidal instrument module, containing systems that documented the height and location of the photograph:
      • Granit-Ya radio system
      • RVV vertical radio altimeter to document altitude of camera
      • AVU astro-photography system that photographed star fields at the time of exposure, allowing the precise position of the camera to be fixed
      • Mayak system VHF communications antenna

    • SpK - Spuskayemaya Kapsula - Descent Capsules. Two spherical SpK capsules were mounted on opposite sides of the OSA and provided interim return of film during the spacecraft's mission. Development of the SpK capsules began in 1968 at Kuibyshev, in parallel with the Block-K 11F76 film return capsules for the Almaz space station's Agat camera system. The capsules included:

      • Thermal control system
      • Telemetry systems
      • VHF beacon
      • Film containers
      • Parachute systems
      • Program timer
      • Pyrotechnic system for separation from the OSA
      • 11D864 solid fuel deorbit engine. This 52 kg engine was 0.45 m long and had a diameter of 0.38 m. It had a chamber pressure of 8 Mpa and provided 600 kgf for 13 seconds.
      • Cold gas capsule spin-up system using the 8005D-0 gas reaction system. This stabilized the spacecraft after braking.
Western description: Fourth generation. Typical orbital profile: inclination 64.9, 67.1, or 70 degrees with an altitude of 170-340 km. Designed duration: 30 to 60 days. First flight: Cosmos 697. Last flight: Cosmos 1471. Transmission frequencies observed in West: 240.5 PCM-FM.

AKA: 11F624; Feniks.
Gross mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb).
Height: 6.30 m (20.60 ft).
First Launch: 1974.05.23.
Last Launch: 1983.06.28.
Number: 30 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
Associated Engines
  • 11D430 Melnikov N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 29.430 kN. Yantar-2K orbital propulsion. In Production. Orbital propulsion system of the Yantar-2K military satellite, including one 11D430, four 11D431, four 11D446, and eight 11D428. Up to 50 ignitions. Isp=307s. Chamber Pressure: 9.00 bar. More...

See also
  • Soyuz The Russian Soyuz spacecraft has been the longest-lived, most adaptable, and most successful manned spacecraft design. In production for fifty years, more than 240 have been built and flown on a wide range of missions. The design will remain in use with the international space station well into the 21st century, providing the only manned access to the station after the retirement of the shuttle in 2011. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Soyuz Russian orbital launch vehicle. The world's first ICBM became the most often used and most reliable launch vehicle in history. The original core+four strap-on booster missile had a small third stage added to produce the Vostok launch vehicle, with a payload of 5 metric tons. Addition of a larger third stage produced the Voskhod/Soyuz vehicle, with a payload over 6 metric tons. Using this with a fourth stage, the resulting Molniya booster placed communications satellites and early lunar and planetary probes in higher energy trajectories. By the year 2000 over 1,628 had been launched with an unmatched success rate of 97.5% for production models. Improved models providing commercial launch services for international customers entered service in the new millenium, and a new launch pad at Kourou was to be inaugurated in 2009. It appeared that the R-7 could easily still be in service 70 years after its first launch. More...
  • Soyuz 11A511U Russian standardised man-rated orbital launch vehicle derived from the original R-7 ICBM of 1957. It has been launched in greater numbers than any orbital launch vehicle in history. Not coincidentally, it has been the most reliable as well. After over 40 years service in Russia, ESA built a new launch pad at Kourou which will keep it in service from three launch sites in three countries well into the mid-21st Century. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • MOM Russian agency overseeing development of spacecraft. Ministry of General Machine Building (Moskva, Russia), Moscow, Russia. More...
  • Kozlov Russian manufacturer of rockets and spacecraft. Kozlov Central Specialized Design Bureau, Samara, Russia. More...

Bibliography
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Home Page (launch records), Harvard University, 1997-present. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • JPL Mission and Spacecraft Library, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 1997. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Isakowitz, Steven J,, International Reference to Space Launch Systems Second Edition, AIAA, Washington DC, 1991 (succeeded by 2000 edition).
  • Sorokin, Vladislav, "'Yantarnaya istoriya'", Novosti Kosmonavtiki, 1997, Issue 17, page 57.
  • Voevodin, Sergey A, "Sergey A. Voevodin's Reports", VSA072 - Space Apparatus, Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Grahn, Sven, Sven Grahn's Space History Pages, Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Melnik, T G, Voenno-Kosmicheskiy Siliy, Nauka, Moscow, 1997..
  • Siddiqi, Asif A, The Soviet Space Race With Apollo, University Press of Florida, 2003.

Associated Launch Sites
  • Baikonur Russia's largest cosmodrome, the only one used for manned launches and with facilities for the larger Proton, N1, and Energia launch vehicles. The spaceport ended up on foreign soil after the break-up of Soviet Union. The official designations NIIP-5 and GIK-5 are used in official Soviet histories. It was also universally referred to as Tyuratam by both Soviet military staff and engineers, and the US intelligence agencies. Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union the Russian Federation has insisted on continued use of the old Soviet 'public' name of Baikonur. In its Kazakh (Kazak) version this is rendered Baykonur. More...
  • Plesetsk Plesetsk was the Soviet Union's northern cosmodrome, used for polar orbit launches of mainly military satellites, and was at one time the busiest launch centre in the world. The collapse of the Soviet Union put the main launch site of Baikonur in Kazakh territory. It now seems that once the Proton rocket is retired, Baikonur will be abandoned and Plesetsk will be Russia's primary launch centre. Upgrades to existing launch facilities will allow advanced versions of the Soyuz rocket and the new Angara launch vehicle to be launched from Plesetsk. Plesetsk's major drawback was the lower net payload in geosynchronous orbit from a northern latitude launch site. However Russia is planning to remove the disadvantage by looping geosynchronous satellites around the moon, using lunar gravity to make the necessary orbital plane change. More...
  • Plesetsk LC41/1 R-7 launch complex. Code named 'Lesobaza', this was the first complex completed at Plesetsk, being declared ready for military service with the R-7A ICBM in November 1959. The complex followed the design of the protoype facility built at Area 31 of Baikonur and included its own residential area for military personnel and assembly buildings for launchers and payloads. More...

Yantar-2K Chronology


1967 July 21 - . LV Family: R-7; Tsiklon.
  • US Project reassigned; R-36-O booster development approved; Yantar-2K and Zvevda 7K-VI approved. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Kozlov. Spacecraft: US-A; US-P; Yantar-2K; Yantar-4K1; Soyuz VI. Decree 715-240 'On the Creation of Space Systems for Naval Reconnaissance Comprising the US sat and the R-36-based booster -further work on the US naval reconnaissance satellite, approval of work on the Yantar-2K, and course of work on 7K-VI Zvezda'.

    An entire family of Yantar spacecraft was proposed by Kozlovís design bureau during the initial development; information on two film return models has been declassified. Yantar was initially derived from the Soyuz spacecraft, including systems developed for the Soyuz VI military model. During design and development this changed until it had very little in common with Soyuz.

    Following numerous problems in the first flight tests of the Soyuz 7K-OK, Kozlov ordered a complete redesign of the 7K-VI manned military spacecraft. The new spacecraft, with a crew of two, would have a total mass of 6.6 tonnes and could operate for a month in orbit. The new design switched the positions of the Soyuz descent module and the orbital modules and was 300 kg too heavy for the standard 11A511 launch vehicle. Therefore Kozlov designed a new variant of the Soyuz launch vehicle, the 11A511M. The project was approved by the Central Committee of the Communist Party, with first flight to be in 1968 and operations to begin in 1969. The booster design, with unknown changes to the basic Soyuz, did not go into full production.


1967 July 24 - .
  • Yantar-2K reconnaissance satellite authorised. - . Nation: USSR. Spacecraft: Yantar-2K. Summary: Ministry of General Machine Building (MOM) Decree 220 'On approval of work on the Yantar-2K' was issued..

1974 May 23 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. Launch Pad: LC43/pad?. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U. FAILURE: A problem in separation of the second and third stages of resulted in radio contact being lost with the spacecraft at T+439.6 sec. This automatically triggered the destruct charge in the Yantar OSA Descent Module, destroying the spacecraft and booster.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • Yantar-2K failure. - . Payload: Yantar-2K s/n 1. Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-2K. COSPAR: F740523A. Summary: First test launch of Yantar second generation reconnaissance spacecraft..

1974 December 13 - . 13:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 697 - . Payload: Yantar-2K s/n 2. Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-2K. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1974-12-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 7571 . COSPAR: 1974-098A. Apogee: 392 km (243 mi). Perigee: 174 km (108 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 90.20 min. Yantar second generation reconnaissance spacecraft. After failure of the first Yantar-2K launch, a review board recommended modifications to the Soyuz U launch vehicle. This second Yantar still used the Sokol control system from the Zenit and lacked the SpK small film recovery capsules. As planned, after 12 days, the main descent capsule was successfully recovered with its film.

1975 September 5 - . 14:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 758 - . Payload: Yantar-2K s/n 3. Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-2K. Duration: 1.00 days. Decay Date: 1975-09-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 8191 . COSPAR: 1975-080A. Apogee: 326 km (202 mi). Perigee: 174 km (108 mi). Inclination: 67.1000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Third Yantar-2K second generation reconnaissance flight, the first with the new Kondor attitude control system. This system experienced problems and failed on the second day of flight. The spacecraft's destruct package was activated by ground command and the spacecraft was destroyed on 6 September 1975 in its second day of flight.

1976 February 20 - . 14:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 805 - . Payload: Yantar-2K s/n 4. Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-2K. Duration: 20.00 days. Decay Date: 1976-03-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 8699 . COSPAR: 1976-018A. Apogee: 351 km (218 mi). Perigee: 171 km (106 mi). Inclination: 67.1000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Fourth Yantar-2K second generation reconnaissance flight and the first with two SpK small film recovery capsules. First flight of the completely equipped satellite. The main reentry capsule and its film cargo were returned successfully. Both SpK capsules successfully separated from the Yantar in the course of the flight, but neither was recovered. The parachutes of the first did not deploy and the capsule crashed into the ground. The solid motor of the second capsule did not fire as programmed and the capsule did not deorbit at the expected time.

1976 July 22 - . 15:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 844 - . Payload: Yantar-2K s/n 5. Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-2K. Duration: 3.00 days. Decay Date: 1976-08-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 9046 . COSPAR: 1976-072A. Apogee: 353 km (219 mi). Perigee: 172 km (106 mi). Inclination: 67.2000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: Fifth Yantar second generation reconnaissance test flight. One of the solar panels would not unfold. Ground control activiated the destruct package and the spacecraft was destroyed on 25 July..

1977 April 26 - . 14:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 905 - . Payload: Yantar-2K s/n 6. Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-2K. Duration: 30.00 days. Decay Date: 1977-05-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 9937 . COSPAR: 1977-030A. Apogee: 413 km (256 mi). Perigee: 170 km (100 mi). Inclination: 67.1000 deg. Period: 90.30 min. Sixth Yantar second generation reconnaissance test flight and first completely successful flight. Both small SpK film capsules successfully recovered during course of flight, as was the main OSA cabin with its camera, computer, and main film cannisters. First full duration Yantar flight.

1977 May - .
  • Council of Chief Designers reconsiders Yantar Soviet reconnsat designs - . Nation: USSR. Spacecraft: Yantar-2K; Yantar-4K1; Yantar-4K2; Orlets-1; Orlets-2; Yantar-6K; Yantar-6KS; Yantar-4KS1. Flight trials of the Yantar-2K indicated the satellite was not capable of providing strategic warning of attack. The planned Yantar-6K series, in development since 1969, were overweight and behind schedule. A meeting of the Council of Chief Designers at TsSKB reviewed alternative approaches. It was decided that three variants of the Yantar-2K were to be developed, one of them the high resolution Yantar-4K.

1977 September 6 - . 17:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 949 - . Payload: Yantar-2K s/n 7. Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-2K. Duration: 30.00 days. Decay Date: 1977-10-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 10326 . COSPAR: 1977-085A. Apogee: 325 km (201 mi). Perigee: 177 km (109 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Yantar-2K second generation reconnaissance state acceptance test flight. Completely successful and led to acceptance of Yantar-2K into Red Army service in 1978. Area survey photo reconnaissance; returned film in two small SpK capsules during the mission and with the main capsule at completion of the mission.

1978 May - .
  • Yantar-2K accepted into military service - . Nation: USSR. Spacecraft: Yantar-2K. Summary: An acceptance test flight in October 1977 led to the Yantar-2K being accepted into Red Army service in May 1978..

1978 August 5 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1028 - . Payload: Yantar-2K s/n 14. Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-2K. Duration: 30.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-09-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 10995 . COSPAR: 1978-076A. Apogee: 247 km (153 mi). Perigee: 170 km (100 mi). Inclination: 67.1000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. Summary: Successful full duration flight. Area survey photo reconnaissance; returned film in two small SpK capsules during the mission and with the main capsule at completion of the mission..

1979 February 27 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1079 - . Payload: Yantar-2K s/n 15. Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-2K. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1979-03-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 11283 . COSPAR: 1979-019A. Apogee: 337 km (209 mi). Perigee: 174 km (108 mi). Inclination: 67.1000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance. Spacecraft depressurization led to malfunction of spacecraft. Deorbited after 12 days..

1979 August 14 - . 15:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1121 - . Payload: Yantar-2K s/n 929. Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-2K. Duration: 30.00 days. Decay Date: 1979-09-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 11487 . COSPAR: 1979-074A. Apogee: 348 km (216 mi). Perigee: 171 km (106 mi). Inclination: 67.2000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance; returned film in two small SpK capsules during the mission and with the main capsule at completion of the mission..

1979 November 2 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1144 - . Payload: Yantar-2K s/n 939. Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-2K. Duration: 32.00 days. Decay Date: 1979-12-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 11611 . COSPAR: 1979-097A. Apogee: 337 km (209 mi). Perigee: 158 km (98 mi). Inclination: 67.2000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance; returned film in two small SpK capsules during the mission and with the main capsule at completion of the mission..

1980 January 24 - . 15:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1152 - . Payload: Yantar-2K s/n 928. Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-2K. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1980-02-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 11678 . COSPAR: 1980-006A. Apogee: 341 km (211 mi). Perigee: 169 km (105 mi). Inclination: 67.1000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance. Mission terminated early for unknown reasons (normally 30 day duration)..

1980 August 26 - . 15:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1208 - . Payload: Yantar-2K s/n 927. Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-2K. Duration: 29.00 days. Decay Date: 1980-09-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 11945 . COSPAR: 1980-071A. Apogee: 339 km (210 mi). Perigee: 173 km (107 mi). Inclination: 67.1000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance; returned film in two small SpK capsules during the mission and with the main capsule at completion of the mission..

1980 December 26 - . 16:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1236 - . Payload: Yantar-2K s/n 941. Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-2K. Duration: 26.00 days. Decay Date: 1981-01-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 12121 . COSPAR: 1980-105A. Apogee: 362 km (224 mi). Perigee: 168 km (104 mi). Inclination: 67.1000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance; returned film in two small SpK capsules during the mission and with the main capsule at completion of the mission..

1981 January 20 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1240 - . Payload: Yantar-2K s/n 975. Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-2K. Duration: 28.00 days. Decay Date: 1981-02-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 12143 . COSPAR: 1981-005A. Apogee: 359 km (223 mi). Perigee: 165 km (102 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance; returned film in two small SpK capsules during the mission and with the main capsule at completion of the mission..

1981 March 5 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1248 - . Payload: Yantar-2K s/n 940. Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-2K. Duration: 30.00 days. Decay Date: 1981-04-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 12317 . COSPAR: 1981-020A. Apogee: 531 km (329 mi). Perigee: 112 km (69 mi). Inclination: 68.1000 deg. Period: 91.00 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance; returned film in two small SpK capsules during the mission and with the main capsule at completion of the mission..

1981 March 28 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U. FAILURE: Failure of launch vehicle.. Failed Stage: 2.
  • Yantar-2K s/n 979 - . Payload: Yantar-2K s/n 979. Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-2K. COSPAR: F810328A. Summary: Yantar Area survey photo reconnaissance spacecraft failed to achieve orbit..

1981 May 18 - . 11:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1270 - . Payload: Yantar-2K s/n 980. Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-2K. Duration: 30.00 days. Decay Date: 1981-06-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 12461 . COSPAR: 1981-045A. Apogee: 345 km (214 mi). Perigee: 171 km (106 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance; returned film in two small SpK capsules during the mission and with the main capsule at completion of the mission..

1981 June 3 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1274 - . Payload: Yantar-2K s/n 942. Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-2K. Duration: 30.00 days. Decay Date: 1981-07-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 12495 . COSPAR: 1981-052A. Apogee: 291 km (180 mi). Perigee: 144 km (89 mi). Inclination: 67.2000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance; returned film in two small SpK capsules during the mission and with the main capsule at completion of the mission..

1981 July 15 - . 13:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1282 - . Payload: Yantar-2K s/n 951. Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-2K. Duration: 30.00 days. Decay Date: 1981-08-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 12588 . COSPAR: 1981-066A. Apogee: 332 km (206 mi). Perigee: 170 km (100 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance; returned film in two small SpK capsules during the mission and with the main capsule at completion of the mission..

1981 August 13 - . 16:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1296 - . Payload: Yantar-2K s/n 943. Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-2K. Duration: 31.00 days. Decay Date: 1981-09-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 12687 . COSPAR: 1981-078A. Apogee: 354 km (219 mi). Perigee: 167 km (103 mi). Inclination: 67.1000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance; returned film in two small SpK capsules during the mission and with the main capsule at completion of the mission..

1981 November 3 - . 13:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1318 - . Payload: Yantar-2K s/n 944. Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-2K. Duration: 31.00 days. Decay Date: 1981-12-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 12936 . COSPAR: 1981-109A. Apogee: 353 km (219 mi). Perigee: 172 km (106 mi). Inclination: 67.1000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance; returned film in two small SpK capsules during the mission and with the main capsule at completion of the mission..

1981 December 19 - . 11:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1330 - . Payload: Yantar-2K s/n 952. Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-2K. Duration: 31.00 days. Decay Date: 1982-01-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 13008 . COSPAR: 1981-121A. Apogee: 376 km (233 mi). Perigee: 164 km (101 mi). Inclination: 70.4000 deg. Period: 89.90 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance; returned film in two small SpK capsules during the mission and with the main capsule at completion of the mission..

1982 January 30 - . 11:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1336 - . Payload: Yantar-2K s/n 953. Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-2K. Duration: 27.00 days. Decay Date: 1982-02-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 13045 . COSPAR: 1982-008A. Apogee: 352 km (218 mi). Perigee: 170 km (100 mi). Inclination: 70.3000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance; returned film in two small SpK capsules during the mission and with the main capsule at completion of the mission..

1982 April 15 - . 14:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1350 - . Payload: Yantar-2K s/n 978. Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-2K. Duration: 31.00 days. Decay Date: 1982-05-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 13134 . COSPAR: 1982-032A. Apogee: 355 km (220 mi). Perigee: 172 km (106 mi). Inclination: 67.1000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance; returned film in two small SpK capsules during the mission and with the main capsule at completion of the mission..

1982 June 30 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1384 - . Payload: Yantar-2K s/n 954. Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-2K. Duration: 30.00 days. Decay Date: 1982-07-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 13303 . COSPAR: 1982-067A. Apogee: 353 km (219 mi). Perigee: 168 km (104 mi). Inclination: 67.2000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance; returned film in two small SpK capsules during the mission and with the main capsule at completion of the mission..

1982 September 15 - . 15:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1407 - . Payload: Yantar-2K s/n 955. Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-2K. Duration: 31.00 days. Decay Date: 1982-10-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 13546 . COSPAR: 1982-091A. Apogee: 309 km (192 mi). Perigee: 169 km (105 mi). Inclination: 67.2000 deg. Period: 89.30 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance; returned film in two small SpK capsules during the mission and with the main capsule at completion of the mission..

1983 February 6 - . 11:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1439 - . Payload: Yantar-2K s/n 956. Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-2K. Duration: 16.00 days. Decay Date: 1983-02-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 13784 . COSPAR: 1983-007A. Apogee: 344 km (213 mi). Perigee: 168 km (104 mi). Inclination: 70.4000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance; film capsule; also performed earth resources tasks. Returned in less than usual 30 day full duration..

1983 April 22 - . 14:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1454 - . Payload: Yantar-2K s/n 957. Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-2K. Duration: 30.00 days. Decay Date: 1983-05-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 14017 . COSPAR: 1983-036A. Apogee: 345 km (214 mi). Perigee: 167 km (103 mi). Inclination: 67.1000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance; returned film in two small SpK capsules during the mission and with the main capsule at completion of the mission..

1983 June 28 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1471 - . Payload: Yantar-2K s/n 958. Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-2K. Duration: 30.00 days. Decay Date: 1983-07-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 14156 . COSPAR: 1983-064A. Apogee: 343 km (213 mi). Perigee: 170 km (100 mi). Inclination: 67.1000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance; returned film in two small SpK capsules during the mission and with the main capsule at completion of the mission. Final Yantar-2K mission..

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