Encyclopedia Astronautica
Zarya VA

Russian manned spacecraft module. Cancelled 1989. The Zarya landing module was enlarged from the Soyuz 2.4 m diameter to 4.1 m diameter, while keeping the same shape and L/D coefficient of 0.26 at Mach 6. Reusable re-entry capsule.

The enlarged module could deliver in unmanned form 3 metric tons of supplies and fuel to the station, and return with 2.5 metric tons.

With two crew, this dropped to 2.5 metric tons up and 1.5 metric tons back; or 8 crew and no payload could be transported. The landing module was designed for reuse 30 to 50 times. The ablative heat shield of Soyuz was replaced by thermal bricks of the kind developed for Buran. Instead of jettisoning the heat shield before landing to ignite the soft-landing rockets, these were moved to ports mid-way up the module. A total of 24 oxygen-kerosene engines each delivering 1500 kg thrust ignited just before impact with the earth to provide a zero velocity landing. Additionally the landing module had 16 orientation engines, each of 62 kgf.


Crew Size: 12. Habitable Volume: 15.00 m3. RCS Coarse No x Thrust: 16 x 610 N.

AKA: Vozvrashchaemiy apparat.
Gross mass: 12,000 kg (26,000 lb).
Payload: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb).
Height: 3.60 m (11.80 ft).
Diameter: 3.70 m (12.10 ft).

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Associated Countries
Associated Spacecraft
  • Zarya Russian manned spacecraft. Cancelled 1989.' Super Soyuz' replacement for Soyuz and Progress. More...

See also
Associated Propellants
  • H2O2/Kerosene Hydrogen peroxide is used as both an oxidiser and a monopropellant. Relatively high density and non-toxic, it was abandoned after early use in British rockets, but recently revived as a propellant for the Black Horse spaceplane. Rocket propellant RP-1, or its foreign equivalents, is a straight-run kerosene fraction, which is subjected to further treatment, i.e., acid washing, sulphur dioxide extraction. Thus, unsaturated substances which polymerise in storage are removed, as are sulphur-containing hydrocarbons. More...

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