Encyclopedia Astronautica

Korolev Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 66.7 kN. GR-1 Stage 3, N-11GR - V. Development based on S1.5400. Isp=350s.

Application: GR-1 Stage 3, N-11GR - V.

Propellant Formulation: Lox/T-1.

Thrust: 66.70 kN (14,995 lbf).
Specific impulse: 350 s.
Burn time: 380 s.

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Associated Countries
See also
Associated Launch Vehicles
  • GR-1 Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. Korolev's entry in the 'Global Rocket' competition, a missile that could place a nuclear warhead in orbit, where it could come in under or behind American anti-ballistic missile defences, and be deorbited with little warning. Cancelled in 1964 in preference to Yangel's R-36-O. More...
  • N111 Russian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. It was originally planned the N1 would form the basis of a family of launch vehicles that could replace existing ICBM-derived boosters. The N111 would use the third and fourth stages of the N1, and the second stage of Korolev's R-9 ICBM. This would result in a lift-off mass of 200 tonnes and a five tonne payload. It could replace the R-7 derived boosters (Vostok and Soyuz) in this payload category. More...
  • N11GR Russian orbital missile. This 1962 project was designed by Korolev's OKB as a competitor to Chelomei's UR-500 against the military GR-2 (Global Rocket 2) requirement. The N-11GR was an adaptation of the basic N-11, derived from the second and third stages of the N1 heavy booster. The GR-2 was to be a kind of enormous multiple-warhead FOBS (fractional orbit bombing system). Surrounding the top of the second stage of the rocket, like bullets in an enormous revolver, were six final stages derived from the 8K713 GR-1 last stage. Each stage had a 1,500 kg nuclear warhead. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Korolev Russian manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Korolev Design Bureau, Kaliningrad, Russia. More...

Associated Propellants
  • Lox/Kerosene Liquid oxygen was the earliest, cheapest, safest, and eventually the preferred oxidiser for large space launchers. Its main drawback is that it is moderately cryogenic, and therefore not suitable for military uses where storage of the fuelled missile and quick launch are required. In January 1953 Rocketdyne commenced the REAP program to develop a number of improvements to the engines being developed for the Navaho and Atlas missiles. Among these was development of a special grade of kerosene suitable for rocket engines. Prior to that any number of rocket propellants derived from petroleum had been used. Goddard had begun with gasoline, and there were experimental engines powered by kerosene, diesel oil, paint thinner, or jet fuel kerosene JP-4 or JP-5. The wide variance in physical properties among fuels of the same class led to the identification of narrow-range petroleum fractions, embodied in 1954 in the standard US kerosene rocket fuel RP-1, covered by Military Specification MIL-R-25576. In Russia, similar specifications were developed for kerosene under the specifications T-1 and RG-1. The Russians also developed a compound of unknown formulation in the 1980's known as 'Sintin', or synthetic kerosene. More...

  • Semenov, Yuri P Editor, Raketno-kosmicheskaya korporatsiya 'Energia' imeni S P Koroleva, Moscow, Russia, 1996.
  • Varfolomyev, Timothy, "Soviet Rocketry that Conquered Space - Part 5", Spaceflight, 1998, Volume 40, page 85.
  • Varfolomyev, Timothy, "Soviet Rocketry that Conquered Space - 8K71 launches", Spaceflight, 1996, Volume 38, page 31.

Associated Stages
  • GR-1 Stage 3 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 8,500/1,000 kg. Thrust 66.60 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 350 seconds. Masses estimated based on total vehicle mass of 117 tonnes. This stage was a close cousin of that developed for the Molniya launch vehicle. More...
  • N-11GR - V Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 8,200/1,700 kg. Thrust 88.20 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 346 seconds. Orbital MIRV stage. Six of these stages clustered around Block B; each stage would have had a 1500 kg nuclear warhead. More...

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