Encyclopedia Astronautica
CD Module


Notional lox/lh2 rocket engine. 7361 kN. Study 1969. Isp=420s. CD Modules - conceptual engines of various thrusts, according to design - were clustered in Martin Marietta Nova designs

Used in Nova MM S and T series Nova designs. Status: Study 1963. Operational date would have been July 1978. Values shown were maximum considered.

Status: Study 1969.
Thrust: 7,361.00 kN (1,654,818 lbf).
Specific impulse: 420 s.
Specific impulse sea level: 377 s.
Burn time: 397 s.

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Associated Countries
See also
Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Nova MM S10R-1 American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Reusable single stage to orbit Nova using cylindrical shape, 24 CD module engines in zero-length plug nozzle. Operational date would have been June 1978. More...
  • Nova MM T10RE-1 American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Two stage Nova using CD modules; reusable first stage with 18 modules exhausting to a 10% length plug nozzle; expendable second stage with 2 CD module engines. Operational date would have been January 1977. More...
  • Nova MM T10EE-1 American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Two stage Nova using CD modules; expendable first stage with 18 modules exhausting to a 10% length plug nozzle; expendable second stage with 2 CD module engines. Operational date would have been November 1976. More...
  • Nova MM S10E-1 American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Expendable single stage to orbit Nova using cylindrical shape, 24 CD module engines in zero-length plug nozzle. Operational date would have been October 1977. More...
  • Nova MM R10R-2 American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Reusable version of most exotic Martin Nova vairant; single stage to orbit, 30 cd module air augmented engines in annular shroud. Operational date would have been October 1980. More...
  • Nova MM S10R-2 American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Reusable single stage to orbit Nova using conical shape, 30 CD module engines in zero-length plug nozzle. Operational date would have been July 1978. More...
  • Nova MM R10E-2 American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Expendable version of most exotic Martin Nova vairant; single stage to orbit, 30 cd module air augmented engines in annular shroud. Operational date would have been October 1980. More...
  • Nova MM T10RR-2 American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Two stage Nova using CD modules; reusable first stage with 24 modules exhausting to a zero length plug nozzle; reusable second stage with a toroidal plug nozzle engine. Operational date would have been December 1976. More...
  • Nova MM S10E-2 American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Expendable single stage to orbit Nova using conical shape, 30 CD module engines in zero-length plug nozzle. Operational date would have been November 1977. More...
  • Nova MM T10RR-3 American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Two stage Nova using CD modules; reusable first stage with 18 modules exhausting to a 10% length plug nozzle; reusable second stage with 2 CD module engines. Operational date would have been July 1977. More...
  • MLLV American SSTO VTOVL orbital launch vehicle. Boeing study, 1969, for Saturn follow-on. Plug nozzle, single-stage-to-orbit launch vehicle could itself put 1 million pounds payload into orbit. By addition of up to 12 260 inch solid motors up to 3.5 million pounds payload into orbit with a single launch. More...

Associated Propellants
  • Lox/LH2 Liquid oxygen was the earliest, cheapest, safest, and eventually the preferred oxidiser for large space launchers. Its main drawback is that it is moderately cryogenic, and therefore not suitable for military uses where storage of the fuelled missile and quick launch are required. Liquid hydrogen was identified by all the leading rocket visionaries as the theoretically ideal rocket fuel. It had big drawbacks, however - it was highly cryogenic, and it had a very low density, making for large tanks. The United States mastered hydrogen technology for the highly classified Lockheed CL-400 Suntan reconnaissance aircraft in the mid-1950's. The technology was transferred to the Centaur rocket stage program, and by the mid-1960's the United States was flying the Centaur and Saturn upper stages using the fuel. It was adopted for the core of the space shuttle, and Centaur stages still fly today. More...

Associated Stages
  • MLLV Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 5,352,400/317,400 kg. Thrust 71,171.70 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 455 seconds. Boeing study, 1969. More...
  • Nova MM R10E-2 Air/Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 8,474,000/1,188,000 kg. Thrust 140,539.00 kN. Specific impulse 620 seconds. Operational date would have been October 1980. Expendable stage. Air-augmented plug nozzle. More...
  • Nova MM T10RR-3-1 Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 5,517,000/680,000 kg. Thrust 109,000.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 454 seconds. Operational date would have been July 1977. Recoverable stage. 10% plug nozzle. More...
  • Nova MM T10RR-2-1 Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 9,089,000/680,000 kg. Thrust 176,686.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 304 seconds. Operational date would have been December 1976. Recoverable stage. More...
  • Nova MM T10RE-1-1 Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 4,979,000/454,000 kg. Thrust 96,379.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 454 seconds. Operational date would have been January 1977. Recoverable stage. More...
  • Nova MM T10EE-1-2 Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,125,000/136,000 kg. Thrust 11,032.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 454 seconds. Operational date would have been November 1976. Expendable stage. More...
  • Nova MM T10EE-1-1 Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 4,944,000/317,000 kg. Thrust 96,379.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 454 seconds. Operational date would have been November 1976. Expendable stage. More...
  • Nova MM S10R-2 Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 10,502,000/839,000 kg. Thrust 160,672.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 454 seconds. Operational date would have been July 1978. SSTO; recoverable; payload 842,000 lbs. More...
  • Nova MM S10R-1 Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 10,470,000/816,000 kg. Thrust 160,672.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 454 seconds. Operational date would have been June 1978. SSTO; recoverable. More...
  • Nova MM S10E-2 Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 10,302,000/639,000 kg. Thrust 160,672.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 454 seconds. Operational date would have been November 1977. SSTO; expendable; payload 1,283,000 lbs. More...
  • Nova MM R10R-2 Air/Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 8,647,000/1,361,000 kg. Thrust 140,539.00 kN. Specific impulse 620 seconds. Operational date would have been October 1980. Recoverable stage. Air-augmented plug nozzle. More...
  • Nova MM T10RR-3-2 Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,229,000/136,000 kg. Thrust 12,052.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 454 seconds. Operational date would have been July 1977. Recoverable stage. More...
  • Nova MM S10E-1 Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 10,317,000/635,000 kg. Thrust 160,672.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 454 seconds. Operational date would have been October 1977. SSTO; expendable. More...

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