Encyclopedia Astronautica

Liberty Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. Development 1994-2006. Pressure-fed engine. Price $ 12,000 in 1995. Used on Scorpius launch vehicle.

Thrust (sl): 18.900 kN (4,249 lbf). Engine: 23 kg (50 lb). Thrust to Weight Ratio: 85.

Status: Development 1994-2006.
Thrust: 18.90 kN (4,249 lbf).
Specific impulse: 245 s.
Specific impulse sea level: 245 s.
Burn time: 300 s.

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Associated Countries
See also
Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Scorpius American low cost orbital launch vehicle. Family of sounding rockets and launch vehicles based on combining liquid oxygen/kerosene pressure-fed engine modules. Modest government funding and over a decade of development had still not resulted in a production contract as of 2006. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
Associated Propellants
  • Lox/Kerosene Liquid oxygen was the earliest, cheapest, safest, and eventually the preferred oxidiser for large space launchers. Its main drawback is that it is moderately cryogenic, and therefore not suitable for military uses where storage of the fuelled missile and quick launch are required. In January 1953 Rocketdyne commenced the REAP program to develop a number of improvements to the engines being developed for the Navaho and Atlas missiles. Among these was development of a special grade of kerosene suitable for rocket engines. Prior to that any number of rocket propellants derived from petroleum had been used. Goddard had begun with gasoline, and there were experimental engines powered by kerosene, diesel oil, paint thinner, or jet fuel kerosene JP-4 or JP-5. The wide variance in physical properties among fuels of the same class led to the identification of narrow-range petroleum fractions, embodied in 1954 in the standard US kerosene rocket fuel RP-1, covered by Military Specification MIL-R-25576. In Russia, similar specifications were developed for kerosene under the specifications T-1 and RG-1. The Russians also developed a compound of unknown formulation in the 1980's known as 'Sintin', or synthetic kerosene. More...

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