Encyclopedia Astronautica

Isayev Nitric acid/Amine rocket engine. R-101B/R-108 SAM. Developed 1950-51. Launch thrust 83.3 kN. Single chamber engine designed for use in the R-101B and R-108 (derivative of German Wasserfall).

Never flown in this application but developed for use in the V-300 SAM and R-11 SSM.

Application: R-101B/R-108 SAM.


Thrust (sl): 83.300 kN (18,727 lbf). Thrust (sl): 8,500 kgf. Propellant Formulation: AK20K/TG-02.

Status: Developed 1950-51.
Thrust: 83.30 kN (18,727 lbf).
First Launch: July 1950.

More... - Chronology...

Associated Countries
See also
Associated Launch Vehicles
  • R-101 Post-war Russian version of German Wasserfall surface-to-air missile. Never put into production, but technology used for further surface-to-air and surface-to-surface missile developments in Russia. More...
  • R-108 All-Russian second generation version of the R-101, itself a derivative of the German Wasserfall. Development began in May 1949 but the missile did not reach flight test stage before its cancellation in 1951. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
Associated Propellants
  • Nitric acid/Amine Drawing on the German World War II Wasserfall rocket, nitric acid (HNO3) became the early storable oxidiser of choice for missiles and upper stages of the 1950's. To overcome various problems with its use, it was necessary to combine the nitric acid with N2O4 and passivation compounds. These formulae were considered extremely secret at the time. By the late 1950's it was apparent that N2O4 by itself was a better oxidiser. Therefore nitric acid was almost entirely replaced by pure N2O4 in storable liquid fuel rocket engines developed after 1960. Early storable rocket systems sought to improve ignition characteristics and perforamance by eliminating the kerosene portion of the fuel. An amine is an organic compound produced when one or more hydrogen atoms of ammonia is replaced with organic groups. Mixed amine fuels were first developed by the Germans in World War II. TONKA-250, developed for the Wasserfall rocket, was used by the Russians after the war in various engines under the specification TG-02. More...

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