Encyclopedia Astronautica
R-13


Dushkin Nitric acid/Solid hybrid rocket engine. Out of Production. Developed in the late 1950s by OKB Dushkin. It was a combined (powder+liquid) engine, characterized by a new technical approach conceived by Dushkin in the prewar design of the KRD-604.

Status: Out of Production.
First Launch: 1946-.

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
See also
Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Dushkin Russian manufacturer of rocket engines. Dushkin, Russia. More...

Associated Propellants
  • Nitric acid/Solid Drawing on the German World War II Wasserfall rocket, nitric acid (HNO3) became the early storable oxidiser of choice for missiles and upper stages of the 1950's. To overcome various problems with its use, it was necessary to combine the nitric acid with N2O4 and passivation compounds. These formulae were considered extremely secret at the time. By the late 1950's it was apparent that N2O4 by itself was a better oxidiser. Therefore nitric acid was almost entirely replaced by pure N2O4 in storable liquid fuel rocket engines developed after 1960. Solid propellants have the fuel and oxidiser embedded in a rubbery matrix. They were developed to a high degree of perfection in the United States in the 1950's and 1960's. In Russia, development was slower, due to a lack of technical leadership in the area and rail handling problems. More...

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