Encyclopedia Astronautica
R-56 Blok A


Notional Nitric acid/Kerosene rocket engine. 4412 kN. R-56 Blok A. Notional engines for polyblock R-56, immense booster/ICBM; planned range 16,000 km. payload 35,000 kg. Tsniimash has 1:10 structural simulation model. Isp=320s.

Application: R-56 Blok A.

Propellant Formulation: RFNA/Kerosene.

Thrust: 4,412.00 kN (991,857 lbf).
Specific impulse: 320 s.
Specific impulse sea level: 300 s.
Burn time: 142 s.
First Launch: 1961.

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
See also
Associated Launch Vehicles
  • R-56 Ukrainian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. The R-56 was Yangel's ultimate superbooster design. Trade studies begun in 1962 resulted in a conventional tandem stage design capable of being transported on the Soviet canal system from the factory to the launch site, while still placing 40 metric tons into low earth orbit. However various Soviet government factions favored the much larger (and less practical) Korolev N1 or Chelomei UR-700 designs. Yangel made one last attempt to convince the government to sponsor a common approach to the lunar program, with different design bureaus concentrating on just one part of the mission, as the American's were doing. But his practical solutions obtained no traction, and further work on the R-56 was abandoned. More...

Associated Propellants
  • Nitric acid/Kerosene Drawing on the German World War II Wasserfall rocket, nitric acid (HNO3) became the early storable oxidiser of choice for missiles and upper stages of the 1950's. To overcome various problems with its use, it was necessary to combine the nitric acid with N2O4 and passivation compounds. These formulae were considered extremely secret at the time. By the late 1950's it was apparent that N2O4 by itself was a better oxidiser. Therefore nitric acid was almost entirely replaced by pure N2O4 in storable liquid fuel rocket engines developed after 1960. Rocket propellant RP-1, or its foreign equivalents, is a straight-run kerosene fraction, which is subjected to further treatment, i.e., acid washing, sulphur dioxide extraction. Thus, unsaturated substances which polymerise in storage are removed, as are sulphur-containing hydrocarbons. More...

Bibliography
  • Placard, Orevo Museum of MAI,

Associated Stages
  • R-56 Block A N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,162,000/162,000 kg. Thrust 1,608.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 316 seconds. More...
  • R-56 Polyblock Stage A Nitric acid/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 222,000/18,000 kg. Thrust 4,410.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 320 seconds. Range 16,000 km. Payload 35,000 kg. Tsniimash has 1:10 structural simulation model. Three stage carrier rocket with consecutiveively divided first and paraell divided second stages. Work began in 1961. Chief designer Yangel. Source: Placard, TsNIIMASH. More...

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