Soyuz 11A511 Stage 2 engine displayed at Tsiolkovskiy Museum in Kaluga.
Credit: © Mark Wade
Kosberg Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 297.9 kN. Voskhod 11A57, Molniya 8K78 stage 3. Isp=326s. First flight 1960.
Application: Voskhod 11A57, Molniya 8K78 stage 3.
Chambers: 4. Engine: 410 kg (900 lb). Chamber Pressure: 68.20 bar. Propellant Formulation: Lox/T-1. Thrust to Weight Ratio: 74.09.
AKA: RD-461; 11D55; 8D715K; RO-8; RD-0108; 8D715P.
More... - Chronology...
Unfuelled mass: 410 kg (900 lb).
Diameter: 0.64 m (2.09 ft).
Thrust: 297.90 kN (66,971 lbf).
Specific impulse: 326 s.
Burn time: 250 s.
First Launch: 1961-65.
Number: 326 .
Associated Launch Vehicles
Molniya 8K78 Russian orbital launch vehicle. Four stage derivative of the R-7 ICBM developed on a crash-program basis in 1960 for Soviet lunar and planetary deep space probe missions. The third stage found later use in the Voskhod and Soyuz launchers. By the 1970's mature versions of the launch vehicle were used almost entirely for launch of Molniya communications satellites and Oko missile early warning spacecraft into elliptical, 12-hour earth orbits. More...
Voskhod 11A57 Russian orbital launch vehicle. The 11A57 took the large third stage originally developed for the 8K78 interplanetary probe projects and applied it to increasing R-7 low earth orbit performance. It was primarily designed to launch the Zenit-4 reconnaisance satellite, but was also used for the Voskhod manned flights and later for a variety of other Zenit series versions. More...
Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
Kosberg Russian manufacturer of rocket engines. Kosberg Design Bureau, Russia. More...
Lox/Kerosene Liquid oxygen was the earliest, cheapest, safest, and eventually the preferred oxidiser for large space launchers. Its main drawback is that it is moderately cryogenic, and therefore not suitable for military uses where storage of the fuelled missile and quick launch are required. In January 1953 Rocketdyne commenced the REAP program to develop a number of improvements to the engines being developed for the Navaho and Atlas missiles. Among these was development of a special grade of kerosene suitable for rocket engines. Prior to that any number of rocket propellants derived from petroleum had been used. Goddard had begun with gasoline, and there were experimental engines powered by kerosene, diesel oil, paint thinner, or jet fuel kerosene JP-4 or JP-5. The wide variance in physical properties among fuels of the same class led to the identification of narrow-range petroleum fractions, embodied in 1954 in the standard US kerosene rocket fuel RP-1, covered by Military Specification MIL-R-25576. In Russia, similar specifications were developed for kerosene under the specifications T-1 and RG-1. The Russians also developed a compound of unknown formulation in the 1980's known as 'Sintin', or synthetic kerosene. More...
Varfolomyev, Timothy, "Soviet Rocketry that Conquered Space - 8K71 launches", Spaceflight, 1996, Volume 38, page 31.
Molniya 8K78-2 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 24,300/2,000 kg. Thrust 294.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 330 seconds. More...
Voskhod 11A57-2 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 24,300/2,000 kg. Thrust 294.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 330 seconds. More...
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