Encyclopedia Astronautica

RD-0120 Engine
The original RD-0120 engines, Russian equivalent to the US Space Shuttle Main Engine, are mothballed at Baikonur. Despite various proposals for their use, future production is unlikely.
Credit: © Mark Wade
Kosberg lox/lh2 rocket engine. 1961 kN. Energia-M core stage. Development ended 1993. Isp=455s. From 1987 KBKhA worked on upgrading the 11D122 (RD-0120) engine for Energia-M launcher, including the possibility to throttle the engine down to 28% thrust.

The original RD-0120 engines are mothballed at Baikonur.

Application: Energia-M core stage..


Thrust (sl): 1,517.100 kN (341,058 lbf). Thrust (sl): 154,702 kgf. Engine: 3,450 kg (7,600 lb). Chamber Pressure: 218.00 bar. Area Ratio: 85.7. Thrust to Weight Ratio: 57.97. Oxidizer to Fuel Ratio: 6.

AKA: 11D122A.
Status: Development ended 1993.
Unfuelled mass: 3,450 kg (7,600 lb).
Height: 4.55 m (14.92 ft).
Diameter: 2.42 m (7.93 ft).
Thrust: 1,961.00 kN (440,850 lbf).
Specific impulse: 455 s.
Specific impulse sea level: 372 s.
Burn time: 600 s.
First Launch: 1987-1991.
Number: 8 .

More... - Chronology...

Associated Countries
See also
Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Energia M Launch vehicle originally designed in the 1980's to fullfill the third generation 20-30 tonnes to orbit launcher requirement. It was an adaptation of the Energia launch vehicle, using two strap-on booster units instead of four, and a reduced-diameter core using a single RD-0120 engine instead of four. In the 1990's a structural test article was built and it was proposed that several Energia-M's be launched for commercial customers using surplus Energia components. No buyers came forward for the untested design. More...
  • Angara The Angara was a new all-Russian heavy launch vehicle designed to replace the Zenit (which was built by a Ukrainian company) and Proton (which had launch pads only on Kazakh territory). The booster was sized for rail transport of modular manufactured components to cosmodromes at Plesetsk and Svobodniy. The design featured a single modular core that could be clustered for large payloads or used as a first stage with a variety of existing upper stages. All plans for the Angara were dependent on financing and subject to constant change. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Kosberg Russian manufacturer of rocket engines. Kosberg Design Bureau, Russia. More...

Associated Propellants
  • Lox/LH2 Liquid oxygen was the earliest, cheapest, safest, and eventually the preferred oxidiser for large space launchers. Its main drawback is that it is moderately cryogenic, and therefore not suitable for military uses where storage of the fuelled missile and quick launch are required. Liquid hydrogen was identified by all the leading rocket visionaries as the theoretically ideal rocket fuel. It had big drawbacks, however - it was highly cryogenic, and it had a very low density, making for large tanks. The United States mastered hydrogen technology for the highly classified Lockheed CL-400 Suntan reconnaissance aircraft in the mid-1950's. The technology was transferred to the Centaur rocket stage program, and by the mid-1960's the United States was flying the Centaur and Saturn upper stages using the fuel. It was adopted for the core of the space shuttle, and Centaur stages still fly today. More...

Associated Stages
  • Angara Stage 2 Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 75,000/9,000 kg. Thrust 1,960.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 455 seconds. Unique configuration with oxidizer in core and fuel in two tanks strapped on in parallel - all of rail-transportable 3.9 m diameter. Buildt by NPO Energia to Khrunichev design (their own design for Angara and Energia-M were rejected in favor of Khrunichev version). Masses estimated based on engine selected and vehicle performance. Assumed that engine is throttled back to maintain constant 3-G acceleration. More...
  • Energia M Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 272,000/28,000 kg. Thrust 1,960.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 455 seconds. More...

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