Encyclopedia Astronautica

NPO Enerogmash Museum
Credit: © Dietrich Haeseler
Glushko Lox/Alcohol rocket engine. 304 kN. R-1, V-1A. Isp=237s. Russian copy of the V-2 engine using Russian materials - which made it very difficult! German rocket scientists assisted in its development. First flight 1948.

German salaries and conditions were good - the chief of the German team receiving the second highest salary after the Soviet designer-in-chief. The RD-100 was built in 1946 at a former Ilyushin aviation plant that had been moved to Tashkent in World War 2 (now the Energomash factory). There was no equipment so everything had to be started from scratch. By mid-1947 the first RD-100 was ready. In May 1948 the first RD-100 test took place at Khimki itself, with the spectators watching from 1 km away. There are still tests at the same location but thrust levels are now 800 tonnes force. The R-1 rocket with the RD-100 engine entered service in 1950.

Application: R-1, V-1A.


Thrust (sl): 267.000 kN (60,023 lbf). Thrust (sl): 27,227 kgf. Engine: 885 kg (1,951 lb). Chamber Pressure: 15.90 bar. Propellant Formulation: Lox/Alcohol-75%. Thrust to Weight Ratio: 35.3672316384181. Oxidizer to Fuel Ratio: 1.28.

Unfuelled mass: 885 kg (1,951 lb).
Height: 3.70 m (12.10 ft).
Diameter: 1.65 m (5.41 ft).
Thrust: 304.00 kN (68,341 lbf).
Specific impulse: 237 s.
Specific impulse sea level: 203 s.
Burn time: 65 s.
First Launch: 1946-50.
Number: 184 .

More... - Chronology...

Associated Countries
See also
Associated Launch Vehicles
  • R-1 Russian short range ballistic missile. Stalin did not decide to proceed with Soviet production of this copy of the German V-2 until 1948. Despite the threatening supervision of the program by Stalin's secret police chief, Beria, and the assistance of German rocket engineers, it took eight years for the German technology to be absorbed and the missile to be put into service. It was almost immediately superseded by later designs, but the effort laid the groundwork for the Soviet rocket industry. Surplus R-1's were converted to use as a sounding rockets for military and scientific research missions. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Glushko Russian manufacturer of rocket engines and rockets. Glushko Design Bureau, Russia. More...

Associated Propellants
  • Lox/Alcohol Liquid oxygen was the earliest, cheapest, safest, and eventually the preferred oxidiser for large space launchers. Its main drawback is that it is moderately cryogenic, and therefore not suitable for military uses where storage of the fuelled missile and quick launch are required. Alcohol (C2H5OH) was the fuel used for the German V-2 rocket, and the first derivative rocket engines in the United States, Soviet Union, and China used it as well. Better performance was achieved by increasing the alcohol concentration in the post-war engines. But after better-performance rocket-grade kerosene was developed by Rocketdyne in the REAP program of 1953, use of alcohol was abandoned. More...

  • Kudryavtseva, V M, ed., Zhidkostnikh Raketnikh Dvigatley, Visshaya Shkola, Moscow, 1993.
  • Salmon, Andrew, The Story Of Russian Rocket Engines - Energomash Museum, Commentary by the guide at the Energomash rocket engine museum in Khimki, April 1998 at YSC98..
  • Haeseler, Dietrich, Information from NPO Energomash museum exhibit, Nov. 1992 via Dietrich Haeseler.
  • Glushko, V P (ed), Kosmonavtika Entsiklopedi, Moscow 1985 via Dietrich Haeseler.
  • Rakhmanin, V F, Odnazhdy i Navsegda, NPO Energomash, Moscow 1998 via Dietrich Haeseler.
  • Russian Arms Catalogue, Vol 5 and 6, Military Parade, Moscow via Dietrich Haeseler.
  • Michels, Juergen and Przybilski, Olaf, Peenemuende und seine Erben in Ost und West, Bernard & Graefe, Bonn, 1997.

Associated Stages
  • R-1 Lox/Alcohol propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 12,630/4,066 kg. Thrust 307.09 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 233 seconds. Payload 815 / 483 kg. Range 270 km. Maximum altitude 77 km. Time of flight 5 minutes. Max velocity at burnout 1465 m/s. Accuracy 8 km in range, 4 km laterally. More...

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