Encyclopedia Astronautica

RD-100 / RD-101
NPO Enerogmash Museum
Credit: © Dietrich Haeseler
Glushko Lox/Alcohol rocket engine. 404 kN. R-2 and V-2A. Isp=237s. Developed simultaneously with the RD-100 but with no German involvement. More compact, increased thrust, increased chamber pressure and higher alcohol concentration. First flight 1949.

The RD-101 was developed simultaneously with the RD-100 but with no German involvement (for security). It was more compact, had increased thrust (37,000 kgf), increased pressure and an increased alcohol concentration. They were nicknamed drunk engines and test specialists used to get the alcohol out afterwards for their own uses!

Application: R-2 and V-2A.


Thrust (sl): 363.000 kN (81,605 lbf). Thrust (sl): 37,016 kgf. Engine: 888 kg (1,957 lb). Chamber Pressure: 21.20 bar. Propellant Formulation: Lox/Alcohol-96%. Thrust to Weight Ratio: 48.8636363636364. Oxidizer to Fuel Ratio: 1.45.

Unfuelled mass: 888 kg (1,957 lb).
Height: 3.35 m (10.99 ft).
Diameter: 1.65 m (5.41 ft).
Thrust: 404.00 kN (90,822 lbf).
Specific impulse: 237 s.
Specific impulse sea level: 210 s.
First Launch: 1946-51.
Number: 78 .

More... - Chronology...

Associated Countries
See also
Associated Launch Vehicles
  • R-2 Russian intermediate range ballistic missile. The Soviet R-2 ballistic missile was developed in 1947-1953, nearly in parallel with the R-1 from which it derived. It incorporated many detailed improvements, had double the range of the R-1 and V-2, and was equipped with a deadly radiological warhead. The ethyl alcohol used in the V-2 and R-1 was replaced by methyl alcohol in the R-2, eliminating the problem of the launch troops drinking up the rocket fuel. Versions of the R-2 for suborbital manned flight were studied by Korolev in 1956-1958, but it was decided instead to move directly to orbital flights of the Vostok. However some equipment tested on the R-2 found its way onto canine flights of Sputnik and Vostok. The R-2 design was transferred to China in 1957 to 1961, providing the technical basis of the Chinese rocket industry. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Glushko Russian manufacturer of rocket engines and rockets. Glushko Design Bureau, Russia. More...

Associated Propellants
  • Lox/Alcohol Liquid oxygen was the earliest, cheapest, safest, and eventually the preferred oxidiser for large space launchers. Its main drawback is that it is moderately cryogenic, and therefore not suitable for military uses where storage of the fuelled missile and quick launch are required. Alcohol (C2H5OH) was the fuel used for the German V-2 rocket, and the first derivative rocket engines in the United States, Soviet Union, and China used it as well. Better performance was achieved by increasing the alcohol concentration in the post-war engines. But after better-performance rocket-grade kerosene was developed by Rocketdyne in the REAP program of 1953, use of alcohol was abandoned. More...

  • Salmon, Andrew, The Story Of Russian Rocket Engines - Energomash Museum, Commentary by the guide at the Energomash rocket engine museum in Khimki, April 1998 at YSC98..
  • Haeseler, Dietrich, Information from NPO Energomash museum exhibit, Nov. 1992 via Dietrich Haeseler.
  • Russian Arms Catalogue, Vol 5 and 6, Military Parade, Moscow via Dietrich Haeseler.

Associated Stages
  • R-2 Lox/Alcohol propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 19,632/4,592 kg. Thrust 404.11 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 237 seconds. Payload 1350 / 508 kg. Range 550 km. Maximum altitude 171 km. Time of flight 7.5 minutes. Max velocity at burnout 2175 m/s. Accuracy 8 km in range, 4 km laterally. More...

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