Encyclopedia Astronautica

Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 627.6 kN. R-7 ICBM stage 1 (strap-on) initial project. Out of Production. Isp=302s. Single chamber engine intended for the R-7 strap-ons in mid-1950s. Subsequently replaced by the 4 chamber RD-107.

Glushko was having difficulties in achieving stable combustion in a chamber of the size of the RD-105, which represented a huge scale-up from the ED-140 German-design 7 tonne thrust engine. In the beginning of the 1950's, various experimental chambers of 600 mm diameter were built, but Glushko was unable to achieve stable combustion. An increase in the payload specification of the R-7, requiring a 50% increase in thrust per stage, got him off the hook. At the end of 1954, he abandoned the RD-105 and instead used four more modest V-2-size chambers for the RD-107.

Application: R-7 ICBM stage 1 (strap-on) initial project.


Thrust (sl): 539.000 kN (121,172 lbf). Thrust (sl): 55,000 kgf. Engine: 782 kg (1,724 lb). Chamber Pressure: 58.80 bar. Area Ratio: 14.2. Thrust to Weight Ratio: 81.84. Oxidizer to Fuel Ratio: 2.7.

AKA: 8D71.
Status: Out of Production.
Unfuelled mass: 782 kg (1,724 lb).
Height: 4.45 m (14.59 ft).
Diameter: 1.20 m (3.90 ft).
Thrust: 627.60 kN (141,090 lbf).
Specific impulse: 302 s.
Specific impulse sea level: 260 s.
Burn time: 130 s.
First Launch: 1952-54.

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Associated Countries
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Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Glushko Russian manufacturer of rocket engines and rockets. Glushko Design Bureau, Russia. More...

Associated Propellants
  • Lox/Kerosene Liquid oxygen was the earliest, cheapest, safest, and eventually the preferred oxidiser for large space launchers. Its main drawback is that it is moderately cryogenic, and therefore not suitable for military uses where storage of the fuelled missile and quick launch are required. In January 1953 Rocketdyne commenced the REAP program to develop a number of improvements to the engines being developed for the Navaho and Atlas missiles. Among these was development of a special grade of kerosene suitable for rocket engines. Prior to that any number of rocket propellants derived from petroleum had been used. Goddard had begun with gasoline, and there were experimental engines powered by kerosene, diesel oil, paint thinner, or jet fuel kerosene JP-4 or JP-5. The wide variance in physical properties among fuels of the same class led to the identification of narrow-range petroleum fractions, embodied in 1954 in the standard US kerosene rocket fuel RP-1, covered by Military Specification MIL-R-25576. In Russia, similar specifications were developed for kerosene under the specifications T-1 and RG-1. The Russians also developed a compound of unknown formulation in the 1980's known as 'Sintin', or synthetic kerosene. More...

  • Varfolomyev, Timothy, "Soviet Rocketry that Conquered Space - Part 1", Spaceflight, 1995, Volume 37, page 260.
  • Glushko, V P, Albom Konstruktsiy ZhRD, Vol. 1 1968, Vol. 3 & 4 1969 via Dietrich Haeseler.
  • Rakhmanin, V F, Odnazhdy i Navsegda, NPO Energomash, Moscow 1998 via Dietrich Haeseler.
  • Michels, Juergen and Przybilski, Olaf, Peenemuende und seine Erben in Ost und West, Bernard & Graefe, Bonn, 1997.

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