Encyclopedia Astronautica
RD-109



rd109q.jpg
RD-109
Credit: © Mark Wade
Glushko lox/udmh rocket engine. 101.6 kN. Developed 1957-60. Isp=334s. Intended for second stage of Lox/UDMH 8K73 version of R-7. Abandoned because of Korolev's refusal to use such a toxic fuel. Later basis for RD-119 used on the Kosmos space launcher.

Intended for the second stage of a Lox/UDMH version of the R-7. Glushko expected to improve engine specific impulse by 8 to 10 seconds over that of the Lox/Kerosene R-7 engines. The project was abandoned because of Korolev's refusal to use such a toxic fuel. However the engine became the basis of the RD-119 used on the Kosmos space launcher.

Application: 8K73 stage 2..

Characteristics

Engine: 210 kg (460 lb). Chamber Pressure: 77.50 bar. Area Ratio: 58.5. Thrust to Weight Ratio: 49.33. Oxidizer to Fuel Ratio: 1.49.

AKA: GDU-10; RD-109; 8D711.
Status: Developed 1957-60.
Unfuelled mass: 210 kg (460 lb).
Height: 2.28 m (7.48 ft).
Diameter: 1.02 m (3.36 ft).
Thrust: 101.60 kN (22,841 lbf).
Specific impulse: 334 s.
Burn time: 330 s.
First Launch: 1957-60.

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
See also
Associated Launch Vehicles
  • 8K73 Russian ballistic missile. Korolev project. Possibly designation for variant of GR-1. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Glushko Russian manufacturer of rocket engines and rockets. Glushko Design Bureau, Russia. More...

Associated Propellants
  • Lox/UDMH Liquid oxygen was the earliest, cheapest, safest, and eventually the preferred oxidiser for large space launchers. Its main drawback is that it is moderately cryogenic, and therefore not suitable for military uses where storage of the fuelled missile and quick launch are required. Unsymmetrical Dimethylhydrazine ((CH3)2NNH2) became the storable liquid fuel of choice by the mid-1950's. Development of UDMH in the Soviet Union began in 1949. It is used in virtually all storable liquid rocket engines except for some orbital manoeuvring engines in the United States, where MMH has been preferred due to a slightly higher density and performance. More...

Bibliography
  • NASA Shuttle and ISS Mission Press Kits and News Releases, NASA, 1981-present. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • NASA Shuttle-Mir Web, NASA, 1997. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Varfolomyev, Timothy, "Soviet Rocketry that Conquered Space - Part 2", Spaceflight, 1996, Volume 38, page 48.
  • Glushko, V P, Albom Konstruktsiy ZhRD, Vol. 1 1968, Vol. 3 & 4 1969 via Dietrich Haeseler.

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