Encyclopedia Astronautica
RD-111


Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 1628 kN. R-9 stage 1. Isp=317s. Developed for R-9 ICBM. It had special flexible pipelines and gimbals, allowing lox loading in 20 minutes. First flight 1961.

The 121-140,000 kgf RD-111 was developed for combat missiles. It had special flexible pipelines and gimbals (simpler than bellows). You'd expect pre-launch pressurisation to be simple and quick with a military missile but the LOX on the R-9 missile took two hours to load. It was just too complicated for military use and would have been knocked out by bombers let alone missiles before it could be used. The final version took just 20 minutes to prepare and veterans claimed just 10 minutes in their tests. It was used in both silo and pad based missiles. Diameter is per chamber.

Application: R-9 stage 1.

Characteristics

Chambers: 4. Thrust (sl): 1,385.000 kN (311,360 lbf). Thrust (sl): 141,240 kgf. Engine: 1,492 kg (3,289 lb). Chamber Pressure: 78.50 bar. Area Ratio: 18. Propellant Formulation: Lox/RG-1. Thrust to Weight Ratio: 112.22972972973. Oxidizer to Fuel Ratio: 2.39.

AKA: 8D716.
Unfuelled mass: 1,492 kg (3,289 lb).
Height: 2.10 m (6.80 ft).
Diameter: 1.67 m (5.47 ft).
Thrust: 1,628.00 kN (365,988 lbf).
Specific impulse: 317 s.
Specific impulse sea level: 275 s.
Burn time: 110 s.
First Launch: 1959-62.
Number: 69 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
See also
Associated Launch Vehicles
  • YaKhR-2 Russian nuclear-powered orbital launch vehicle. First large space launcher considered in the Soviet Union. It would have had the same layout as the R-7, but with six strap-ons increased in size by 50%. The core, igniting at altitude, used a nuclear thermal engine using ammonia as propellant. Dropped in favor of development of conventional chemical propulsion. More...
  • R-9 Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. ICBM developed by Korolev OKB using liquid oxygen/kerosene propellants. The Soviet military favoured storable propellants as advocated by Glushko and implemented by Yangel and Chelomei. Development of the R-9 was protracted and it was deployed in only very limited numbers between 1964 and 1974. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Glushko Russian manufacturer of rocket engines and rockets. Glushko Design Bureau, Russia. More...

Associated Propellants
  • Lox/Kerosene Liquid oxygen was the earliest, cheapest, safest, and eventually the preferred oxidiser for large space launchers. Its main drawback is that it is moderately cryogenic, and therefore not suitable for military uses where storage of the fuelled missile and quick launch are required. In January 1953 Rocketdyne commenced the REAP program to develop a number of improvements to the engines being developed for the Navaho and Atlas missiles. Among these was development of a special grade of kerosene suitable for rocket engines. Prior to that any number of rocket propellants derived from petroleum had been used. Goddard had begun with gasoline, and there were experimental engines powered by kerosene, diesel oil, paint thinner, or jet fuel kerosene JP-4 or JP-5. The wide variance in physical properties among fuels of the same class led to the identification of narrow-range petroleum fractions, embodied in 1954 in the standard US kerosene rocket fuel RP-1, covered by Military Specification MIL-R-25576. In Russia, similar specifications were developed for kerosene under the specifications T-1 and RG-1. The Russians also developed a compound of unknown formulation in the 1980's known as 'Sintin', or synthetic kerosene. More...

Bibliography
  • Kudryavtseva, V M, ed., Zhidkostnikh Raketnikh Dvigatley, Visshaya Shkola, Moscow, 1993.
  • Salmon, Andrew, The Story Of Russian Rocket Engines - Energomash Museum, Commentary by the guide at the Energomash rocket engine museum in Khimki, April 1998 at YSC98..
  • Haeseler, Dietrich, Information from NPO Energomash museum exhibit, Nov. 1992 via Dietrich Haeseler.
  • Glushko, V P, Albom Konstruktsiy ZhRD, Vol. 1 1968, Vol. 3 & 4 1969 via Dietrich Haeseler.

Associated Stages
  • R-9A Stage 1 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 61,600/4,000 kg. Thrust 1,595.83 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 311.4 seconds. Payload 3,500 kg. Range 13,000 km. Accuracy (90%) 8 km in range and 5 km in dispersion with radio guidance; 20 km / 10 km with inertial guidance. Empty mass estimated. More...
  • YaKhR-2 Strap-on Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 110,000/8,250 kg. Thrust 2,393.72 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 311 seconds. R-7 strap-ons increased in size dimensionally 50%, equipped with 6 engines from R-9. Boost nuclear thermal core stage to altitude before ignition of nuclear engine. Masses calculated based on vehicle total weight and performance. More...

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