Encyclopedia Astronautica

Credit: © Mark Wade
Credit: © Mark Wade
Glushko Nitric acid/Kerosene rocket engine. 730 kN. R-12, Kosmos 11K63 stage 1. Isp=264s. Single turbopump driven by H2O2 gas generator feeding four fixed chambers. Ignition with propellant TG-02. First flight 1957.

Chamber Internal Diameter . 480 mm, throat diameter 176 mm. Diameter is per chamber.

Application: Kosmos B-1, (SS-4 Sandal) stage 1.


Chambers: 4. Thrust (sl): 635.200 kN (142,799 lbf). Thrust (sl): 64,752 kgf. Engine: 655 kg (1,444 lb). Chamber Pressure: 43.60 bar. Area Ratio: 9.42. Propellant Formulation: AK27I/TM-185. Thrust to Weight Ratio: 161.25. Oxidizer to Fuel Ratio: 3.97. Coefficient of Thrust vacuum: .67. Coefficient of Thrust sea level: .58.

Unfuelled mass: 655 kg (1,444 lb).
Height: 1.48 m (4.85 ft).
Diameter: 2.38 m (7.80 ft).
Thrust: 730.00 kN (164,110 lbf).
Specific impulse: 264 s.
Specific impulse sea level: 230 s.
Burn time: 140 s.
First Launch: 1955-59.
Number: 181 .

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Associated Countries
See also
Associated Launch Vehicles
  • R-12 Ukrainian intermediate range ballistic missile. The R-12 was the first operationally effective intermediate range ballistic missile, the first Soviet missile deployed with a thermonuclear warhead, and the first mass-produced missile in history. 2,300 of the storable propellant rockets were built and deployed in both mobile and silo-based versions for thirty years, from March 1959 to June 1989. It was a primary element in the Soviet deterrent threatening Western Europe and China throughout the Cold War. Deployment of R-12's to Cuba in 1962 precipitated the Cuba Missile Crisis. More...
  • R-12U Ukrainian intermediate range ballistic missile. Universal version of the R-12U, for pad-launch or from the 'Dvina' silo complex. More...
  • Kosmos 63S1 Ukrainian orbital launch vehicle. The 63S1 initial production version was used through May 1966 for a total of 40 launches, of which 12 were failures. It was succeeded by the 63S1M prototype for the 11K63 production space launcher. More...
  • Kosmos 11K63 Ukrainian orbital launch vehicle. Series production version of satellite launcher based on Yangel R-12 IRBM. Succeeded 63S1M prototype from 1965, using same 'Dvina' launch complex. From March 16, 1967 orbital launches from Plesetsk were from the purpose-built 'Raduga' launch complex LC133. Total of 123 launches, of which 8 were failures. More...
  • Kosmos 63S1M Ukrainian orbital launch vehicle. Modernized version of 63S1 initial configuration of the first Kosmos launcher and the prototype for the production 11K63 launch vehicle. Suborbital launches from Plesetsk from 1965 at from the modified R-12 silo 'Dvina'. Flown only a few times in 1965-1967. Succeeded by the 11K63 production model launched from the 'Raduga' complex. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Glushko Russian manufacturer of rocket engines and rockets. Glushko Design Bureau, Russia. More...

Associated Propellants
  • Nitric acid/Kerosene Drawing on the German World War II Wasserfall rocket, nitric acid (HNO3) became the early storable oxidiser of choice for missiles and upper stages of the 1950's. To overcome various problems with its use, it was necessary to combine the nitric acid with N2O4 and passivation compounds. These formulae were considered extremely secret at the time. By the late 1950's it was apparent that N2O4 by itself was a better oxidiser. Therefore nitric acid was almost entirely replaced by pure N2O4 in storable liquid fuel rocket engines developed after 1960. Rocket propellant RP-1, or its foreign equivalents, is a straight-run kerosene fraction, which is subjected to further treatment, i.e., acid washing, sulphur dioxide extraction. Thus, unsaturated substances which polymerise in storage are removed, as are sulphur-containing hydrocarbons. More...

  • Kudryavtseva, V M, ed., Zhidkostnikh Raketnikh Dvigatley, Visshaya Shkola, Moscow, 1993.
  • Haeseler, Dietrich, Information from NPO Energomash museum exhibit, Nov. 1992 via Dietrich Haeseler.
  • Glushko, V P, Albom Konstruktsiy ZhRD, Vol. 1 1968, Vol. 3 & 4 1969 via Dietrich Haeseler.

Associated Stages
  • Kosmos A-1 Nitric acid/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 39,515/3,150 kg. Thrust 730.50 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 264 seconds. More...
  • R-12 Nitric acid/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 34,610/4,810 kg. Thrust 625.52 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 235 seconds. Payload 390 kg. Range 1500 km. Maximum altitude 398 km. Time of flight 11.8 minutes. Max velocity at burnout 3530 m/s. Accuracy 6 km in range, 5 km laterally. Source: wall chart, Russian Space Agency HQ, Moscow. More...

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