Encyclopedia Astronautica

Glushko Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 865 kN. R-16 stage 1. Out of Production. Original intended use unknown. Three RD-217 clustered to make RD-218. Isp=289s. First flight 1961.

Application: R-16 stage 1.

Chambers: 2. Engine: 980 kg (2,160 lb). Chamber Pressure: 73.60 bar. Area Ratio: 18.8. Propellant Formulation: AK27I/UDMH. Thrust to Weight Ratio: 90. Oxidizer to Fuel Ratio: 2.5.

AKA: 8D515.
Status: Out of Production.
Unfuelled mass: 980 kg (2,160 lb).
Thrust: 865.00 kN (194,459 lbf).
Specific impulse: 289 s.
Specific impulse sea level: 246 s.
First Launch: 1958-61.

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Associated Countries
See also
Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Glushko Russian manufacturer of rocket engines and rockets. Glushko Design Bureau, Russia. More...

Associated Propellants
  • Nitric acid/UDMH Drawing on the German World War II Wasserfall rocket, nitric acid (HNO3) became the early storable oxidiser of choice for missiles and upper stages of the 1950's. To overcome various problems with its use, it was necessary to combine the nitric acid with N2O4 and passivation compounds. These formulae were considered extremely secret at the time. By the late 1950's it was apparent that N2O4 by itself was a better oxidiser. Therefore nitric acid was almost entirely replaced by pure N2O4 in storable liquid fuel rocket engines developed after 1960. Unsymmetrical Dimethylhydrazine ((CH3)2NNH2) became the storable liquid fuel of choice by the mid-1950's. Development of UDMH in the Soviet Union began in 1949. It is used in virtually all storable liquid rocket engines except for some orbital manoeuvring engines in the United States, where MMH has been preferred due to a slightly higher density and performance. More...

  • Glushko, V P, Albom Konstruktsiy ZhRD, Vol. 1 1968, Vol. 3 & 4 1969 via Dietrich Haeseler.

Associated Stages
  • R-16-1 Nitric acid/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 110,000/10,000 kg. Thrust 2,609.50 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 289 seconds. Range 12,000 km. Tsniimash has 1:10 structural simulation model. Two stage ICBM with nitric acid oxidizer. Developed 1956-1961. Entered service 1961. Chief designer Yangel. Source: Placard, TsNIIMASH. More...

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