Encyclopedia Astronautica
RD-56M


Isayev lox/lh2 rocket engine. 73.580 kN. Proton and Angara upper stage KVRB, 12KRB upper stage for GSLV (India). In development. Isp=461s. First flight 2001.

Engine for KVRB cryogenic kick stage. Was to be completed by the end of 1995 (Competing against motor by CADB). Currently no decision taken. Also used in 12KRB cryogenic upper stage for the Indian GSLV launcher.

Application: Proton and Angara upper stage KVRB, 12KRB upper stage for GSLV (India).

AKA: KVD-1M; RD-56M; 11D56M.
Status: In development.
Thrust: 73.58 kN (16,541 lbf).
Specific impulse: 461 s.
First Launch: 1994-.
Number: 4 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
Associated Spacecraft
  • N1 Block Sr Russian space tug. Study 1971. Upper stage / space tug - developed 1971-1974 to support manned lunar expedition. Replaced Blok R/Blok S previously under development. More...
  • KVRB Russian space tug. Study 1992. Upper stage / space tug - design 1992. High energy upper stage for Proton, never put into production. More...

See also
Associated Launch Vehicles
  • N1F Sr Russian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. The final more modest version of the N1F replaced the fourth and fifth stages of the N1 with the single liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen Block Sr stage. Development of the Sr stage was from May 1971 until cancellation of the N1 project in May 1974. More...
  • GSLV Indian mixed-propulsion orbital launch vehicle for geosynchronous satellites using a Lox/LH2 upper stage developed from Russian technology. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
Associated Propellants
  • Lox/LH2 Liquid oxygen was the earliest, cheapest, safest, and eventually the preferred oxidiser for large space launchers. Its main drawback is that it is moderately cryogenic, and therefore not suitable for military uses where storage of the fuelled missile and quick launch are required. Liquid hydrogen was identified by all the leading rocket visionaries as the theoretically ideal rocket fuel. It had big drawbacks, however - it was highly cryogenic, and it had a very low density, making for large tanks. The United States mastered hydrogen technology for the highly classified Lockheed CL-400 Suntan reconnaissance aircraft in the mid-1950's. The technology was transferred to the Centaur rocket stage program, and by the mid-1960's the United States was flying the Centaur and Saturn upper stages using the fuel. It was adopted for the core of the space shuttle, and Centaur stages still fly today. More...

Associated Stages
  • Angara KVRB Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 23,300/3,500 kg. Thrust 73.50 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 461 seconds. Planned version for Angara. 5 restarts. More...
  • GSLV-3 Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 14,600/2,200 kg. Thrust 75.05 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 460 seconds. The stage finally reached hardware status as a joint Russian-Indian development for India's GSLV booster. More...
  • N1 Block Sr Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 77,900/11,500 kg. Thrust 147.88 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 441 seconds. Upper stage developed 1971-1974 to support manned lunar expedition. Replaced Blok R/Blok S previously under development. Capable of five restarts and 11 days of flight. Could insert 24 tonnes into lunar orbit or 20 tonnes into geosynch orbit. More...
  • Proton KM-4 Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 19,500/3,000 kg. Thrust 73.58 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 461 seconds. Planned version for Proton. Never developed. More...

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