Encyclopedia Astronautica
RD-58M



11d68.jpg
Block D / 11D68
Aft view of the Block D lunar crasher stage and its 11D68 engine. The Block D would have taken the LK lunar lander to near the surface of the moon. This stage remains in use today atop the Proton rocket.
Credit: © Mark Wade
11d68det.jpg
Engine 11D68 detail
Close-up view of the 11D68 Block D lunar crasher stage showing detail of the BOZ orientation/ullage thrusters that control the stage during coast, restart, and manoeuvre.
Credit: © Mark Wade
Korolev Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 83.4 kN. Proton 8K824K / 11S824M; 11S824F; 11S86; 11S861; 17S40 stage 4 (block DM). In production. Isp=353s. First flight 1974.

Application: Proton 8K824K / 11S824M; 11S824F; 11S86; 11S861; 17S40 stage 4 (block DM).

Engine: 230 kg (500 lb). Chamber Pressure: 77.50 bar. Area Ratio: 189. Thrust to Weight Ratio: 36.95. Oxidizer to Fuel Ratio: 2.48.

AKA: 11D58M.
Status: In production.
Unfuelled mass: 230 kg (500 lb).
Height: 2.27 m (7.44 ft).
Diameter: 1.17 m (3.83 ft).
Thrust: 83.40 kN (18,749 lbf).
Specific impulse: 353 s.
Burn time: 680 s.
First Launch: 1970-74.
Number: 212 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
Associated Spacecraft
  • Block DM 11S86 Russian space tug. 66 launches, (1974) to (1990). Upper stage / space tug - out of production. Launched by Proton. More...
  • Block D-1 11S824M Russian space tug. 11 launches, (1976) to (1989). Upper stage / space tug - in production. Launched by Proton. Also known as Block D-1; article number 11S824M. Without guidance unit (navigation commands come from payload). More...
  • Block DM-5 17S40 Russian space tug. 6 launches, (1997) to (2002). Upper stage / space tug - in production. Launched by Proton. Also known as Block DM-5. With guidance unit, modification of 11S861 stage for heavier payloads and with different payload adapter. More...

See also
Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Proton-K/DM Russian orbital launch vehicle. The original four stage Proton / Block D configuration was used until 1976, at which time it was replaced by a modernised version equipped with N2O4/UDMH verniers for precise placement of payloads in geosynchronous orbit and its own self-contained guidance unit. This was accepted into military service in 1978 with the first Raduga launch. The stage was first developed for launch of gesynchronous military communications and early warning satellites (Raduga, Ekran, Gorizont, Potok, SPRN). Its later versions continue in use for launch of MEO and geosynchronous comsats, and was Russia's most successful commercial launcher. More...
  • Proton-K/D-1 Russian orbital launch vehicle. This derivative of the original four stage Block D / 11S824 version of the Proton was used from 1978 to launch Lavochkin OKB planetary probes (Mars, Venera) and high earth orbit astronomical observatories (Astron, Granat). Guidance to the Block D-1 stage must be supplied by spacecraft. Equipped with N2O4/UDMH verniers for precise placement of payloads in high orbits or planetary trajectories. More...
  • Proton-K/DM-2 Russian orbital launch vehicle. This improved four stage version uses the Block DM-2 / 11S861 fourth stage, which has its own guidance unit. This reduces payload but does not require the spacecraft's guidance system to provide steering commands to booster. Replaced the original Block DM / 11S86 version from 1982 to 1995. Used for launch of Glonass navigation satellites into medium earth orbit; and launch of Luch, Ekran-M, Potok, Raduga, Gorizont, Raduga-1, Elektro, and Gals communications satellites into geosynchronous orbit. Commercial version with Saab payload adapter-seperation system for Western payloads was dubbed 'Block DM1'. More...
  • Proton-K/DM-2 DM1 Russian orbital launch vehicle. Version of the 11S861 with adapter for Lockheed Martin AS 4000 bus spacecraft. More...
  • Proton-K/D-2 Russian orbital launch vehicle. This four stage version of the Proton was a modification of the original Block D / 11S824M for launch of late 1980's Lavochkin OKB probes on missions to Mars. Guidance to the Block D-2 stage must be supplied by spacecraft. More...
  • Proton-K/17S40 Russian orbital launch vehicle. Version of Proton using Block DM-5 / 17S40 fourth stage. This stage has a new payload adapter for use with heavier paylods launched into sub-synchronous orbits. Used for launch of Arkon reconnaisance satellite. More...
  • Proton-K/17S40 DM2 Russian orbital launch vehicle. Version of the 17S40 with payload adapter for deployment of multiple LM 700 (Iridium) spacecraft into medium earth orbit. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Korolev Russian manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Korolev Design Bureau, Kaliningrad, Russia. More...

Associated Propellants
  • Lox/Kerosene Liquid oxygen was the earliest, cheapest, safest, and eventually the preferred oxidiser for large space launchers. Its main drawback is that it is moderately cryogenic, and therefore not suitable for military uses where storage of the fuelled missile and quick launch are required. In January 1953 Rocketdyne commenced the REAP program to develop a number of improvements to the engines being developed for the Navaho and Atlas missiles. Among these was development of a special grade of kerosene suitable for rocket engines. Prior to that any number of rocket propellants derived from petroleum had been used. Goddard had begun with gasoline, and there were experimental engines powered by kerosene, diesel oil, paint thinner, or jet fuel kerosene JP-4 or JP-5. The wide variance in physical properties among fuels of the same class led to the identification of narrow-range petroleum fractions, embodied in 1954 in the standard US kerosene rocket fuel RP-1, covered by Military Specification MIL-R-25576. In Russia, similar specifications were developed for kerosene under the specifications T-1 and RG-1. The Russians also developed a compound of unknown formulation in the 1980's known as 'Sintin', or synthetic kerosene. More...

Associated Stages
  • Proton 17S40 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 14,600/3,300 kg. Thrust 85.02 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 352 seconds. Also known as Block DM-5. Commercial version is Block DM2, with Iridium dispenser, designed for insertion of multiple LM 700 (Iridium) spacecraft into medium earth orbit. With guidance unit, modification of 11S861 stage for heavier payloads and with different payload adapter. More...
  • Proton 11S824F Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 16,900/1,800 kg. Thrust 85.02 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 352 seconds. Also known as Block D-2; article number 11S824F. Without guidance unit (navigation commands come from payload). Successor to 11S824M. Used for launch of Lavochkin Mars-bound spacecraft in 1988 and 1996. More...
  • Proton 11S824M Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 14,000/1,830 kg. Thrust 85.02 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 352 seconds. Also known as Block D-1; article number 11S824M. Without guidance unit (navigation commands come from payload). Successor to 11S824. Used to launch large Lavochkin bureau unmanned lunar/planetary/high earth orbit spacecraft from 1976 to 1989. More...
  • Proton 11S86 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 17,550/2,300 kg. Thrust 85.02 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 352 seconds. Also known as Block DM; article number 11S86. With guidance unit, designed for insertion of military spacecraft into geosynchonous/ medium earth orbit. Used from 1974 to 1990. Succeeded by 11S861. More...
  • Proton 11S861 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 17,300/2,300 kg. Thrust 85.02 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 352 seconds. Also known as Block DM-2 (different from commercial Block DM2 (no hyphen!)), article number 11S861. Commercial version designated Block DM1 and is equipped with Saab payload adapter for insertion of AS 4000 bus spacecraft into geosynchronous orbit. With improved guidance system as compared to 11S86, originally designed for insertion of military spacecraft into geosynchonous orbit. Used from 1982 to present. More...
  • Zenit-3 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 17,300/2,720 kg. Thrust 84.92 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 352 seconds. Adaptation of Block D for Zenit. More...

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