Encyclopedia Astronautica
RD-861



rd861.jpg
RD-861
Credit: © Dietrich Haeseler
Yuzhnoye N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 78.710 kN. Tsyklon 2 and 3 stage 3; Ikar. In production. Isp=317s. Based on RD-854. Thrust vector control by 4 nozzles (thrust 98 N each) fed from a gas generator. First flight 1965.

Mass given in ref. IAF-97-S.1.04 is 162 kg instead of 123 kg originally stated.

Application: Tsyklon 2 and 3 stage 3; Ikar.

Characteristics

Chambers: 1 + 4 + 2. Engine: 123 kg (271 lb). Chamber Pressure: 88.80 bar. Area Ratio: 112.4. Thrust to Weight Ratio: 65.25. Oxidizer to Fuel Ratio: 2.1.

AKA: S5.23; D-25; RD-861; 11D25.
Status: In production.
Unfuelled mass: 123 kg (271 lb).
Height: 1.56 m (5.11 ft).
Diameter: 1.53 m (5.01 ft).
Thrust: 78.71 kN (17,695 lbf).
Specific impulse: 317 s.
Burn time: 130 s.
First Launch: 1968-72.
Number: 229 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
See also
Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Tsiklon-2 Ukrainian orbital launch vehicle. A government decree of 24 August 1965 ordered development by Yangel of a version of his R-36 rocket to orbit Chelomei's IS (Istrebitel Sputnik) ASAT and US (Upravlenniye Sputnik) naval intelligence satellites. The Tyklon 2 definitive operational version replaced the 11K67 launch vehicle from 1969 and was an adaptation of the 8K69 (SS-9) two stage ICBM. The IS and US Raketoplan-derived payloads had their own engines for insertion into final orbit. More...
  • Tsiklon-3 Ukrainian orbital launch vehicle. The Tsyklon 3 was developed in 1970-1977 as a part of a program to reduce the number of Soviet booster types. The first two stages were derived from the 8K68 version of the R-36 ICBM, while the restartable third stage was derived from that of the R-36-O. Compared to the Tsyklon 2, the launch vehicle increased payload to 4 metric tons, provided for completely automated launch operations, and had increased orbital injection accuracy. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Yuzhnoye Ukrainian manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Yangel Design Bureau, Dnepropetrovsk, Ukraine. More...

Associated Propellants
  • N2O4/UDMH Nitrogen tetroxide became the storable liquid propellant of choice from the late 1950's. Unsymmetrical Dimethylhydrazine ((CH3)2NNH2) became the storable liquid fuel of choice by the mid-1950's. Development of UDMH in the Soviet Union began in 1949. It is used in virtually all storable liquid rocket engines except for some orbital manoeuvring engines in the United States, where MMH has been preferred due to a slightly higher density and performance. More...

Bibliography
  • Isakowitz, Steven J,, International Reference to Space Launch Systems Second Edition, AIAA, Washington DC, 1991 (succeeded by 2000 edition).
  • Shnyakin, Klimov, Shulga, "Uprated Main Liquid Propellant Rocket Engine For CYCLONE LV Third Stage", IAF-Congress Turin, 1997, IAF-97-S.1.04 via Dietrich Haeseler.
  • Shnyakin, V N, Shidkostnye Raketye Dvigateli - Opisanie i Osnovnye Tekhnicheskie Dannye, GKB Yuzhnoe "Yangel", Dnepropetrovsk 1996 via Dietrich Haeseler.
  • Yuzhnoye Company Web Site, Web Address when accessed: here.

Associated Stages
  • Tsyklon 2-3 N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 3,200/400 kg. Thrust 77.96 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 317 seconds. Integral portion of payload. More...
  • Tsyklon 3-3 N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 4,600/1,407 kg. Thrust 78.71 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 317 seconds. More...

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