Encyclopedia Astronautica

Korolev Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 67.3 kN. Molniya 8K78M-3. Isp=342s. First flight 1964.

Application: Molniya 8K78M-3.

Engine: 148 kg (327 lb). Chamber Pressure: 54.00 bar. Propellant Formulation: Lox/RG-1. Thrust to Weight Ratio: 46.25.

AKA: S1.5400A; 11D33M.
Unfuelled mass: 148 kg (327 lb).
Thrust: 67.30 kN (15,130 lbf).
Specific impulse: 342 s.
Burn time: 200 s.
First Launch: 1961-64.
Number: 294 .

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Associated Countries
See also
Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Molniya 8K78M Russian orbital launch vehicle. Improved Molniya, in variants with Blocks ML, 2BL, or SO-L third stages according to payload. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Korolev Russian manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Korolev Design Bureau, Kaliningrad, Russia. More...

Associated Propellants
  • Lox/Kerosene Liquid oxygen was the earliest, cheapest, safest, and eventually the preferred oxidiser for large space launchers. Its main drawback is that it is moderately cryogenic, and therefore not suitable for military uses where storage of the fuelled missile and quick launch are required. In January 1953 Rocketdyne commenced the REAP program to develop a number of improvements to the engines being developed for the Navaho and Atlas missiles. Among these was development of a special grade of kerosene suitable for rocket engines. Prior to that any number of rocket propellants derived from petroleum had been used. Goddard had begun with gasoline, and there were experimental engines powered by kerosene, diesel oil, paint thinner, or jet fuel kerosene JP-4 or JP-5. The wide variance in physical properties among fuels of the same class led to the identification of narrow-range petroleum fractions, embodied in 1954 in the standard US kerosene rocket fuel RP-1, covered by Military Specification MIL-R-25576. In Russia, similar specifications were developed for kerosene under the specifications T-1 and RG-1. The Russians also developed a compound of unknown formulation in the 1980's known as 'Sintin', or synthetic kerosene. More...

Associated Stages
  • Molniya 8K78M-3 Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 6,660/1,160 kg. Thrust 66.60 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 340 seconds. Standardized improved version for Molniya-type communications satellite payloads. More...

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