Encyclopedia Astronautica

Burya engine
Burya engine guidance vanes
Credit: Lavochkin
Isayev Nitric acid/Amine rocket engine. 671.2 kN. Burya booster. Out of production. Isp=250s. First flight 1957. Engines developed from R-11 S2.253 engine.

Booster engine for Burya missile. Two used to boost ramjet second stage to ignition conditions. Engines developed by Isayev from R-11 S2.253 engine. Early Buryas had S2.1100 engine. Two thrust levels. 671,20 / 477 kN sea-level. While Glushko found the nitric acid/kerosene combination acceptable for the Buran cruise missile / RD-212 application, Isayev turned to a different combination for his booster for the competing Burya missile booster. Isayev tested nitric acid with many fuels, including amines, before finally selecting hydrazine. Cluster testing of Isayev's engine was also conducted with TM-185 turpentine. Stand tests began with four prototypes in March 1957 at NII-229 Zagorsk.

Application: Burya booster.


Chambers: 4. Engine: 650 kg (1,430 lb). Chamber Pressure: 53.00 bar. Thrust to Weight Ratio: 105.29.

Status: Out of production.
Unfuelled mass: 650 kg (1,430 lb).
Height: 1.87 m (6.13 ft).
Diameter: 1.21 m (3.96 ft).
Thrust: 671.20 kN (150,892 lbf).
Specific impulse: 250 s.
Specific impulse sea level: 218 s.
Burn time: 70 s.
First Launch: 1953-59.
Number: 36 .

More... - Chronology...

Associated Countries
See also
Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Burya A government decree on 20 May 1954 authorised the Lavochkin aircraft design bureau to proceed with full-scale development of the Burya trisonic intercontinental cruise missile. Burya launches began in July 1957. The project was cancelled, but the team was allowed final tests in 1961 that demonstrated a 6,500 km range at Mach 3.2 with the 2,350 kg payload. In cancelling Burya the Russians gave up technology that Lavochkin planned to evolve into a manned shuttle-like recoverable launch vehicle. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
Associated Propellants
  • Nitric acid/Amine Drawing on the German World War II Wasserfall rocket, nitric acid (HNO3) became the early storable oxidiser of choice for missiles and upper stages of the 1950's. To overcome various problems with its use, it was necessary to combine the nitric acid with N2O4 and passivation compounds. These formulae were considered extremely secret at the time. By the late 1950's it was apparent that N2O4 by itself was a better oxidiser. Therefore nitric acid was almost entirely replaced by pure N2O4 in storable liquid fuel rocket engines developed after 1960. Early storable rocket systems sought to improve ignition characteristics and perforamance by eliminating the kerosene portion of the fuel. An amine is an organic compound produced when one or more hydrogen atoms of ammonia is replaced with organic groups. Mixed amine fuels were first developed by the Germans in World War II. TONKA-250, developed for the Wasserfall rocket, was used by the Russians after the war in various engines under the specification TG-02. More...

  • Russian Arms Catalogue, Vol 5 and 6, Military Parade, Moscow via Dietrich Haeseler.
  • Siddiqi, Asif A, Soviet Space Web Page, 1999 via Dietrich Haeseler. Web Address when accessed: here.

Associated Stages
  • Burya booster Nitric acid/Amine propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 27,000/4,000 kg. Thrust 771.70 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 250 seconds. Booster for Burya missile. Two used to boost ramjet second stage to ignition conditions. Engines developed by Isayev from R-11 S2.253 engine. Early Buryas had S2.1100 engine. Masses estimated based on known total vehicle mass. More...

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