Encyclopedia Astronautica
S2.253


Isayev Nitric acid/Kerosene rocket engine. 93.3 kN. R-11 (Scud B) 8A61. Thrust 8300 kgf at sea level. Fuel Kerosene T-1, chemical ignition by TG-02. Isp=251s. First flight 1953.

Application: R-11 (Scud B) 8A61.

Thrust (sl): 71.000 kN (15,961 lbf). Thrust (sl): 7,242 kgf. Propellant Formulation: AK20I/T-1.

Diameter: 0.96 m (3.14 ft).
Thrust: 93.30 kN (20,975 lbf).
Specific impulse: 251 s.
Specific impulse sea level: 219 s.
Burn time: 95 s.
First Launch: 1949-55.
Number: 92 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
See also
Associated Launch Vehicles
  • R-11 First Russian ballistic missile using storable propellants, developed from the German Wasserfall SAM by Korolev's OKB. The design was then spun off to the Makeyev OKB for development of Army (R-17 Scud) and SLBM (R-11FMA) derivatives. More...
  • R-11FM First Russian submarine-launched ballistic missile. Following protracted testing the design was accepted by the military in 1959 but never put into operational service. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
Associated Propellants
  • Nitric acid/Kerosene Drawing on the German World War II Wasserfall rocket, nitric acid (HNO3) became the early storable oxidiser of choice for missiles and upper stages of the 1950's. To overcome various problems with its use, it was necessary to combine the nitric acid with N2O4 and passivation compounds. These formulae were considered extremely secret at the time. By the late 1950's it was apparent that N2O4 by itself was a better oxidiser. Therefore nitric acid was almost entirely replaced by pure N2O4 in storable liquid fuel rocket engines developed after 1960. Rocket propellant RP-1, or its foreign equivalents, is a straight-run kerosene fraction, which is subjected to further treatment, i.e., acid washing, sulphur dioxide extraction. Thus, unsaturated substances which polymerise in storage are removed, as are sulphur-containing hydrocarbons. More...

Bibliography
  • Semenov, Yuri P Editor, Raketno-kosmicheskaya korporatsiya 'Energia' imeni S P Koroleva, Moscow, Russia, 1996.
  • Shirokorad, A, Rakety nad Morem, Second Edition, Tekhnika I Vooruzhenie, Moscow 11-12, 1997 via Dietrich Haeseler.
  • Siddiqi, Asif A, Soviet Space Web Page, 1999 via Dietrich Haeseler. Web Address when accessed: here.

Associated Stages
  • Hwasong 5 Nitric acid/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 5,000 kg. Thrust 93.00 kN. More...
  • Hwasong 6 Nitric acid/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 5,000 kg. Thrust 93.00 kN. More...
  • R-11 Nitric acid/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 4,660/955 kg. Thrust 93.28 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 251 seconds. First Russian ballistic missile using storable propellants. Enlargement/elaboration of German Wasserfall SAM. Developed by Korolev OKB, then Makeyev OKB spun off to develop Army and SLBM derivatives. Range 270 km with 690 kg, accuracy 1.5 km/0.75 km. Maximum altitude 78 km. Time of flight 5.4 minutes. Max velocity at burnout 1430 m/s. Source: Wall chart, Russian Space Agency HQ, Moscow. More...
  • R-11FM Nitric acid/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 4,473/1,080 kg. Thrust 92.83 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 250 seconds. First Russian submarine-launched ballistic missile. Range 150 km with 967 kg warhead. Accuracy 1.5 km in range, 0.75 km lateral. More...

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