Encyclopedia Astronautica
S2.253A


Isayev Nitric acid/Kerosene rocket engine. 93 kN. R-11FM. Out of Production. Used in R-11FM submarine version of Scud B. Fuel Kerosene T-1, chemical ignition by TG-02. Mixture ratio derived from tank content. 81 kN sea-level.

Application: R-11FM.

Propellant Formulation: AK20I/T-1. Oxidizer to Fuel Ratio: 3.76.

Status: Out of Production.
Thrust: 93.00 kN (20,907 lbf).
Specific impulse: 218 s.
Specific impulse sea level: 218 s.
First Launch: 1953-59.

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
See also
Associated Launch Vehicles
  • R-11FM First Russian submarine-launched ballistic missile. Following protracted testing the design was accepted by the military in 1959 but never put into operational service. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
Associated Propellants
  • Nitric acid/Kerosene Drawing on the German World War II Wasserfall rocket, nitric acid (HNO3) became the early storable oxidiser of choice for missiles and upper stages of the 1950's. To overcome various problems with its use, it was necessary to combine the nitric acid with N2O4 and passivation compounds. These formulae were considered extremely secret at the time. By the late 1950's it was apparent that N2O4 by itself was a better oxidiser. Therefore nitric acid was almost entirely replaced by pure N2O4 in storable liquid fuel rocket engines developed after 1960. Rocket propellant RP-1, or its foreign equivalents, is a straight-run kerosene fraction, which is subjected to further treatment, i.e., acid washing, sulphur dioxide extraction. Thus, unsaturated substances which polymerise in storage are removed, as are sulphur-containing hydrocarbons. More...

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