Encyclopedia Astronautica

Isayev Nitric acid/Amine rocket engine. 252.2 kN. R-13 (SS-N-4). Out of Production. First engine to employ gas generator on main propellants. One main and four vernier thrusters. (Mixture derived ratio from tank content.)

Application: R-13 (SS-N-4).

Chambers: 1 + 4. Propellant Formulation: AK27I/TG-02. Oxidizer to Fuel Ratio: 3.48.

Status: Out of Production.
Thrust: 252.20 kN (56,697 lbf).
First Launch: 1956-61.

More... - Chronology...

Associated Countries
See also
Associated Launch Vehicles
  • R-13 Russian submarine-launched ballistic missile. Developed from 1956-1960. First nuclear-armed SLBM. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
Associated Propellants
  • Nitric acid/Amine Drawing on the German World War II Wasserfall rocket, nitric acid (HNO3) became the early storable oxidiser of choice for missiles and upper stages of the 1950's. To overcome various problems with its use, it was necessary to combine the nitric acid with N2O4 and passivation compounds. These formulae were considered extremely secret at the time. By the late 1950's it was apparent that N2O4 by itself was a better oxidiser. Therefore nitric acid was almost entirely replaced by pure N2O4 in storable liquid fuel rocket engines developed after 1960. Early storable rocket systems sought to improve ignition characteristics and perforamance by eliminating the kerosene portion of the fuel. An amine is an organic compound produced when one or more hydrogen atoms of ammonia is replaced with organic groups. Mixed amine fuels were first developed by the Germans in World War II. TONKA-250, developed for the Wasserfall rocket, was used by the Russians after the war in various engines under the specification TG-02. More...

  • Russian Space Industry, Federation of American Scentists Web Pages, 1998 via Dietrich Haeseler. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Shirokorad, A, Rakety nad Morem, Second Edition, Tekhnika I Vooruzhenie, Moscow 11-12, 1997 via Dietrich Haeseler.
  • Siddiqi, Asif A, Soviet Space Web Page, 1999 via Dietrich Haeseler. Web Address when accessed: here.

Associated Stages
  • R-13 Nitric acid/Amine propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 13,700 kg. More...

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