Encyclopedia Astronautica

Isayev Nitric acid/Amine rocket engine. 392 kN. R-21 (SS-N-5). Out of Production. First engine to start underwater. 392 kN sea-level.

Application: R-21 (SS-N-5).

Chambers: 4. Propellant Formulation: AK27I/TG-02.

Status: Out of Production.
Thrust: 392.00 kN (88,125 lbf).
First Launch: 1958-63.

More... - Chronology...

Associated Countries
See also
Associated Launch Vehicles
  • R-21 Russian submarine-launched ballistic missile. First flight 1962. NATO code Serb may apply to SS-N-6 instead. First subsurface launched SLBM (development began at OKB- 586 and transferred to SKB-385). More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
Associated Propellants
  • Nitric acid/Amine Drawing on the German World War II Wasserfall rocket, nitric acid (HNO3) became the early storable oxidiser of choice for missiles and upper stages of the 1950's. To overcome various problems with its use, it was necessary to combine the nitric acid with N2O4 and passivation compounds. These formulae were considered extremely secret at the time. By the late 1950's it was apparent that N2O4 by itself was a better oxidiser. Therefore nitric acid was almost entirely replaced by pure N2O4 in storable liquid fuel rocket engines developed after 1960. Early storable rocket systems sought to improve ignition characteristics and perforamance by eliminating the kerosene portion of the fuel. An amine is an organic compound produced when one or more hydrogen atoms of ammonia is replaced with organic groups. Mixed amine fuels were first developed by the Germans in World War II. TONKA-250, developed for the Wasserfall rocket, was used by the Russians after the war in various engines under the specification TG-02. More...

  • Russian Space Industry, Federation of American Scentists Web Pages, 1998 via Dietrich Haeseler. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Glushko, V P, Albom Konstruktsiy ZhRD, Vol. 1 1968, Vol. 3 & 4 1969 via Dietrich Haeseler.
  • Sergienko, A; Chervakov, V, "Russian Rocket Engines Design", Fifth Symposium Propulsion, Paper 5.3, Paris, May 1996 via Dietrich Haeseler.
  • Siddiqi, Asif A, Soviet Space Web Page, 1999 via Dietrich Haeseler. Web Address when accessed: here.

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