Encyclopedia Astronautica

Isayev Nitric acid/Amine rocket engine. 396.7 kN. R-9 (SS-8) missile stage 1. Out of Production. Proposed for R-9 missile stage 1. Four engines per stage. 396,7 kN sea-level.

Application: R-9 (SS-8) missile stage 1.

Chambers: 4. Engine: 433 kg (954 lb). Chamber Pressure: 66.00 bar. Area Ratio: 9.55. Propellant Formulation: AK27I/TG-02. Thrust to Weight Ratio: 93.42. Oxidizer to Fuel Ratio: 3.6.

Status: Out of Production.
Unfuelled mass: 433 kg (954 lb).
Thrust: 396.70 kN (89,182 lbf).
Specific impulse: 241 s.
Specific impulse sea level: 241 s.
First Launch: 1959-60, 1958-60.

More... - Chronology...

Associated Countries
See also
Associated Launch Vehicles
  • R-9 Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. ICBM developed by Korolev OKB using liquid oxygen/kerosene propellants. The Soviet military favoured storable propellants as advocated by Glushko and implemented by Yangel and Chelomei. Development of the R-9 was protracted and it was deployed in only very limited numbers between 1964 and 1974. More...
  • 8K76 Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. Version using storable propellants and Isayev engines. Studied but rejected prior to start of development. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
Associated Propellants
  • Nitric acid/Amine Drawing on the German World War II Wasserfall rocket, nitric acid (HNO3) became the early storable oxidiser of choice for missiles and upper stages of the 1950's. To overcome various problems with its use, it was necessary to combine the nitric acid with N2O4 and passivation compounds. These formulae were considered extremely secret at the time. By the late 1950's it was apparent that N2O4 by itself was a better oxidiser. Therefore nitric acid was almost entirely replaced by pure N2O4 in storable liquid fuel rocket engines developed after 1960. Early storable rocket systems sought to improve ignition characteristics and perforamance by eliminating the kerosene portion of the fuel. An amine is an organic compound produced when one or more hydrogen atoms of ammonia is replaced with organic groups. Mixed amine fuels were first developed by the Germans in World War II. TONKA-250, developed for the Wasserfall rocket, was used by the Russians after the war in various engines under the specification TG-02. More...

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