Encyclopedia Astronautica

S.5.4 Vostok TDU
S.5.4 Vostok TDU engine schematics
Credit: © Mark Wade
Isayev Nitric acid/Amine rocket engine. 15.830 kN. Vostok/Voskhod retorfire engine; spacecraft maneuvering engine. . Out of Production. Includes 4 small lateral steering nozzles. Isp=266s.

Application: Vostok/Voskhod retorfire engine; spacecraft maneuvering engine. .

Chambers: 1 + 4. Engine: 98 kg (216 lb). Chamber Pressure: 55.50 bar. Propellant Formulation: AK20F/TG-02. Thrust to Weight Ratio: 16.46. Oxidizer to Fuel Ratio: 3.07.

AKA: S5.4; TDU-1.
Status: Out of Production.
Unfuelled mass: 98 kg (216 lb).
Height: 1.13 m (3.69 ft).
Diameter: 0.95 m (3.11 ft).
Thrust: 15.83 kN (3,559 lbf).
Specific impulse: 266 s.
Burn time: 45 s.
First Launch: 1959.

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Associated Countries
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Associated Propellants
  • Nitric acid/Amine Drawing on the German World War II Wasserfall rocket, nitric acid (HNO3) became the early storable oxidiser of choice for missiles and upper stages of the 1950's. To overcome various problems with its use, it was necessary to combine the nitric acid with N2O4 and passivation compounds. These formulae were considered extremely secret at the time. By the late 1950's it was apparent that N2O4 by itself was a better oxidiser. Therefore nitric acid was almost entirely replaced by pure N2O4 in storable liquid fuel rocket engines developed after 1960. Early storable rocket systems sought to improve ignition characteristics and perforamance by eliminating the kerosene portion of the fuel. An amine is an organic compound produced when one or more hydrogen atoms of ammonia is replaced with organic groups. Mixed amine fuels were first developed by the Germans in World War II. TONKA-250, developed for the Wasserfall rocket, was used by the Russians after the war in various engines under the specification TG-02. More...

  • Kudryavtseva, V M, ed., Zhidkostnikh Raketnikh Dvigatley, Visshaya Shkola, Moscow, 1993.
  • Glushko, V P (ed), Kosmonavtika Entsiklopedi, Moscow 1985 via Dietrich Haeseler.
  • Kudryavtsev, V M, et.al., Osnovy Teorii i Rascheta, Moscow, Vysshaya Shkola, 1993 via Dietrich Haeseler.

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