Encyclopedia Astronautica

Isayev Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 1961 kN. correction engine for Zond-1, Venera-2-8, and others. Out of Production. Pressure-fed engine. Used as correction engine for spacecraft Zond-1, Vernera-8, and others. Isp=267s.

Application: correction engine for Zond-1, Venera-2-8, and others..

Engine: 52 kg (114 lb). Chamber Pressure: 11.80 bar. Area Ratio: 16. Propellant Formulation: AK20F/UDMH. Thrust to Weight Ratio: 3846.15. Oxidizer to Fuel Ratio: 2.6.

Status: Out of Production.
Unfuelled mass: 52 kg (114 lb).
Thrust: 1,961.00 kN (440,850 lbf).
Specific impulse: 267 s.
Burn time: 53 s.

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Associated Propellants
  • Nitric acid/UDMH Drawing on the German World War II Wasserfall rocket, nitric acid (HNO3) became the early storable oxidiser of choice for missiles and upper stages of the 1950's. To overcome various problems with its use, it was necessary to combine the nitric acid with N2O4 and passivation compounds. These formulae were considered extremely secret at the time. By the late 1950's it was apparent that N2O4 by itself was a better oxidiser. Therefore nitric acid was almost entirely replaced by pure N2O4 in storable liquid fuel rocket engines developed after 1960. Unsymmetrical Dimethylhydrazine ((CH3)2NNH2) became the storable liquid fuel of choice by the mid-1950's. Development of UDMH in the Soviet Union began in 1949. It is used in virtually all storable liquid rocket engines except for some orbital manoeuvring engines in the United States, where MMH has been preferred due to a slightly higher density and performance. More...

  • Kudryavtseva, V M, ed., Zhidkostnikh Raketnikh Dvigatley, Visshaya Shkola, Moscow, 1993.
  • Glushko, V P, Albom Konstruktsiy ZhRD, Vol. 1 1968, Vol. 3 & 4 1969 via Dietrich Haeseler.
  • Russian Arms Catalogue, Vol 5 and 6, Military Parade, Moscow via Dietrich Haeseler.

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