Lutz Kayser invented, developed, and tested the TIROC rocket engine (Tangential Injection and Rotational Combustion). It was the world's smallest thruster burning Monomethylhydrazine and Nitrogen tetroxide. It delivered 1 newton thrust (0.2 lbf) with a minimum burning time of 1 milliseconds and a demonstrated maximum burning time of 1 million seconds (11 days). The valves had response times of under 1 millisecond and were capable of more than 1 million cycles at a 6 sigma confidence level. Kayser also developed one of the first capillary action gas-liquid separation systems. This guaranteed positive liquid flow from propellant tanks to the rocket engines in zero-gravity. Future applications were high performance satellite and space vehicle attitude control systems.
The TIROC was licensed by unknown US manufacturers and used in classified US DoD satellites. Characteristics were:
Because of the low thrust acceleration capillary action gas-liquid separation in the propellant was recommended
Bipropellant rocket engine (thruster) applications included: Satellite attitude and position control, re-entry systems, intra-orbit propulsion, docking, astronaut EVA, momentum gyro discharge.
Application: Satellite orientation..
Engine: 0.0800 kg (0.1760 lb). Area Ratio: 100. Restarts: 1000.
Unfuelled mass: 0.0800 kg (0.1760 lb).
Height: 0.0600 m (0.1960 ft).
Diameter: 0.0200 m (0.0650 ft).
Thrust: 1.00 N (0.20 lbf).
Specific impulse: 303 s.
Burn time: 1,000,000 s.
First Launch: Early 1960's.