Encyclopedia Astronautica
YaRD OKB-456


Glushko nuclear/ammonia rocket engine. 1373 kN. Development ended 1960. Isp=470s. Used nuclear reactor in cylindrical housing, operating at 3000 deg K. Propellant heated in the reactor and exhausted through four expansion nozzles

Korolev began work on 3 nuclear launchers on 30 June 1958. Competing engine design was by Bondaryuk.

Application: nuclear launcher.

Status: Development ended 1960.
Thrust: 1,373.00 kN (308,662 lbf).
Specific impulse: 470 s.
Specific impulse sea level: 430 s.
Burn time: 500 s.
First Launch: 1958-.

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
See also
Associated Launch Vehicles
  • YaKhR-2 Russian nuclear-powered orbital launch vehicle. First large space launcher considered in the Soviet Union. It would have had the same layout as the R-7, but with six strap-ons increased in size by 50%. The core, igniting at altitude, used a nuclear thermal engine using ammonia as propellant. Dropped in favor of development of conventional chemical propulsion. More...
  • OKB-456 Russian intercontinental range ballistic missile. Variant using a Glushko nuclear engine heating ammonia as a propellant. More...
  • Superraket Russian nuclear orbital launch vehicle. The ancestor of the N1 lunar launch vehicle, this was the first heavy lift launch vehicle actively considered in the USSR. The 2,000 tonne liftoff mass was similar to the later N1 design, but the first stage would use a staggering cluster of around 66 Kuznetsov NK-9 engines (as opposed to the modest 24 NK-15's of the first N1 configuration). The real difference was in the second stage, which used the nuclear YaRD engine, giving the launch vehicle nearly double the later N1's payload capacity. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Glushko Russian manufacturer of rocket engines and rockets. Glushko Design Bureau, Russia. More...

Associated Propellants
  • Nuclear/Ammonia Nuclear thermal engines use the heat of a nuclear reactor to heat a propellant. Although early Russian designs used ammonia or an ammonia/alcohol mixture as propellant, the ideal working fluid for space applications is the liquid form of the lightest element, hydrogen. Although successfully ground-tested in both Russia, they have never been flown due primarily to environmental and safety concerns. More...

Bibliography
  • Semenov, Yuri P Editor, Raketno-kosmicheskaya korporatsiya 'Energia' imeni S P Koroleva, Moscow, Russia, 1996.
  • Semenov, Yu. P., S P Korolev Space Corporation Energia, RKK Energia, 1994.

Associated Stages
  • Superraket Block B Nuclear/Ammonia propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 700,000/75,000 kg. Thrust 8,330.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 550 seconds. Nuclear engine operating at 3500 deg K. Mass estimated; empty mass calculated. More...
  • YaKhR-2 Core Nuclear/Ammonia propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 180,000/22,000 kg. Thrust 1,660.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 470 seconds. Engines in development by Bondayuk and Glushko. Alternate propellants ammonia only or ammonia/alcohol mixture. Four expansion nozzles fed by single reactor. Masses calculated based on given vehicle gross weight and performance. More...
  • YaRD ICBM OKB-456 Nuclear/Ammonia propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 84,400/8,600 kg. Thrust 1,370.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 470 seconds. Nuclear-propelled ICBM with engines in development by Glushko. Four expansion nozzles fed by single reactor. Payload 2,600 kg to 14,000 km. Empty mass, vehicle length calculated. More...

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