Encyclopedia Astronautica
Astrobee



astrb200.jpg
Astrobee 200
Aerojet-designed family of sounding rockets conceived as a lower-cost replacement of the liquid-propellant Aerobee.

From Aerojet - The Creative Company, 1995:

By 1969 it appeared that there was a substantial need for small and extremely low cost sounding rockets, and enough experience had been gained that a dual thrust motor would be attractive. As a result the NASA Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (NASA-OAST) funded the development of such a motor and vehicle. The resulting Astrobee D motor (and complete vehicle of the same name) was 6" in diameter and had a thrust in the boost phase of about 3600 lbf, and 2000 lbf in the sustainer mode. Sixty five were produced, and 49 were flown, with one failure.

While this program was in process, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center authorized a much larger version (15" diameter) having thrust levels of 38,000 lbf boost and 8,000 lbf sustain, which was designated the Astrobee F. The first firing test in December 1970 resulted in meeting the desired propulsion parameters, including a duration of 50 seconds. However the nozzle suffered asymmetric erosion that removed one quadrant of the insulation. The second test resulted in chamber burnout close to this same location, and it took two more iterations to achieve a successful design. The Astrobee F was designed specifically to approximate the very mild flight environment of the Aerobee in terms of wind sensitivity, dynamic pressure, aerodynamic heating and stability margin - and it met these goals. Flight tests were successful, and 48 units were flown, but again suffered one failure of the rocket motor.

Although Space General Corporation fielded several other vehicles designated as Astrobees, none of these used any dual thrust Aerojet solid propellant motors. These included Astrobee 200, 250, and 1500.

Astrobee is a family of sounding rockets that is in the tradition of the Aerobee family. The Astrobee rocket uses a solid propellant second stage where the Aerobee has a liquid one. Astrobees are a family of four, ranging from the tiny 10 ft long Astrobee D to the 48 ft high Astrobee Super Chief II and III. The name Chief was selected by the Navy in the same tradition as the Army Corporal and Sergeant rockets. The middle range Astrobee F is comparable in performance to Aerobee 170. But the Astrobee 1500 has about three to four times the altitude capability of the largest Aerobee - the 350. The Super Chief III Astrobee has up to 60% more payload than the Aerobee 350. The largest Astrobees are 31 in. diameter compared to the 15 in. and 22 in. diameters of the Aerobees. This 31 in. diameter is quite large for a sounding rocket and quite respectable for any rocket when considering that the small ICBM is 46 in. diameter and Minuteman III is 52 inches. The largest Astrobee is also nearly 10% longer than the Trident II SLBM

The D, F and 1500 models use an aerodynamic fin-stabilized first stage and a spin-stabilized second stage. Both stages of the Super Chief are fm-stabilized. Most motors are built by Aerojet and include Aerojet Jr., ALCOR, and Astrobee motors. They mostly use Hydroxyl Terminated Polybutadiene (HTPB) for the required environmental characteristics and the ability to produce the slender designs peculiar to sounding rocket sustainer motors. It also gives high Isp at the very low propellant burning rates needed for these motors. Dual thrust was designed into the motors to limit the wind dispersion by use of high initial acceleration without auxiliary boosters. The sustainer thrust is about one-fourth the booster thrust to limit aerodynamic loading to Aerobee levels. The Astrobee Super Chief used a Talos booster motor with over 115,000 lbf average thrust on the first stage. Either a Sergeant or Castor motor were used on the second stage with burn durations of up to 40 seconds. The Astrobees would sometimes compete with the more expensive but longer duration and earth-circling satellites. The Astrobee 1500 could generally go higher than most satellites and certainly cost less. Practical size payloads could be lifted to 700 to 1,600 miles altitude.

Astrobee design stressed reliability and low cost. Reed Jenkins remembers, "They had elegant simplicity. The motor was only four parts, including a one-piece nozzle. We had to keep the cost down and it was a constant battle." Launch configurations were oriented to low cost and also quick turnaround. The limit of two stages allowed units to be readily trailered. Assembly was made at ground level like the Aerobees and the launcher would erect the vehicle to the vertical launch position. The Super Chief needed very substantial launchers, yet there were several to choose from, including one adapted from a ship's 5 inch gun turret mount, the Athena launcher and the AML-20K launcher.

The flight logs maintained by Al Olson show there were 309 successful Astrobee flights of 314 post-development flights yielding a reliability of 98.4%. This is an enviable record for any multi-stage rocket launch vehicle.

More... - Chronology...


Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Astrobee American sounding rocket. Aerojet-designed family of sounding rockets conceived as a lower-cost replacement of the liquid-propellant Aerobee. More...
  • Astrobee 500 American sounding rocket. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Genie + 1 x Alcor + 1 x Asp More...
  • Astrobee 1500 American sounding rocket. Three stage vehicle consisting of 2 x Recruit + 1 x Aerojet Jr + 1 x Alcor More...
  • Astrobee 200 American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Genie + 1 x Alcor More...
  • Astrobee F American sounding rocket. Single stage solid-fueled dual-thrust rocket replacement for the Aerobee 150. More...

Associated Launch Sites
  • Wallops Island Small NASA launch site for sounding rocket launches and occasional Scout launches to orbit. Air launches are conducted from the Drop Zone Wallops Island, 37.00 N 72.0 W. With the last orbital launch in 1985 and the decline in sounding rocket launches, Wallops fell into near-disuse as a launch center. Its fortunes revised with the establishment of Mid-Atlantic Regional Spaceport in 2005 and orbital launches resumed in 2010. More...
  • White Sands White Sands Missile Range occupies an area 160 x 65 km in the Tularosa Basin of southern New Mexico, across the Sacramento Mountain range from Roswell. In the 1930's, Robert Goddard, after surveying weather conditions and population densities, had selected Roswell for his pioneering rocket tests. White Sands, a true desert area, was even more unpopulated than Roswell. German advances in rocketry during World War II impelled the US Army to begin programs to exploit this technology. The White Sands Proving Ground was established for testing German and American long-range rockets on 9 July 1945. Seven days later the first atomic bomb was exploded at Trinity Site, near the north boundary of the range. The first launch of a Tiny Tim rocket was on 26 September 1945. On 11 October a Tiny Tim boosted a WAC Corporal rocket from the tower. This was the first use of Launch Complex 33, later to be used for V-2, Nike, Viking, Corporal, Lance and Multiple Launch Rocket System testing. More...
  • Vandenberg Vandenberg Air Force Base is located on the Central Coast of California about 240 km northwest of Los Angeles. It is used for launches of unmanned government and commercial satellites into polar orbit and intercontinental ballistic missile test launches toward the Kwajalein Atoll. More...
  • Poker Flat Sounding rocket launch site. In use from 1969 to present. Poker Flat Rocket Range (PFRR) contains five major launch pads. Pads 1 and 2 each have a 7.5K launcher, pads 3 and 4 each contain 20K MRL launchers, and pad 5 contains a 4K twin boom launcher. Pad 3 is equipped with a moveable launcher enclosure which can be used to protect a rocket on pad 3 and workers from the severe winter weather. More...
  • Fort Churchill Fort Churchill is an Arctic site on Hudson Bay with a rail link. It is near the point of maximum auroral activity. This combination of circumstances made it ideal for far-north sounding rocket launches. In 1954, the Canadian Army conducted the first series of rocket firings at Fort Churchill. Following a period of inactivity, construction of more elaborate facilities in support of the International Geophysical Year began in 1956. IGY firings began in July 1957. The range was closed again in December 1958 after the IGY program ended. It was reopened again in August 1959 by the US Army as part of its network of sounding rocket stations. This allowed use of the site by other groups over the years. More...
  • Eglin This US Air Force proving ground and missile test range, based in Valparaiso, Florida and extending over a vast expanse of the Gulf of Mexico, was founded in 1935, In early 1946 the First Experimental Guided Missiles Group was activated at Eglin. The highly-instrumented Eglin Gulf Test Range supported flight tests of Bomarc, Matador, Quail, and Hound Dog cruise missiles. Both the military and NASA used Eglin to support launch of sounding rockets in support of their programs. Eglin was known to have been used for 441 launches from 1959 to 1980, reaching up to 686 kilometers altitude. The actual number of missile tests was many times greater. More...
  • San Marco In 1962 NASA signed an agreement with the Centro Ricerche Aerospaziali at the University of Rome creating the San Marco program. The purpose of the program was to place an Italian satellite in orbit and to create an Italian equatorial launch site for the Scout rocket. Permission was obtained from Kenya to emplace two modified oil platforms off their coast, on the equator. The Santa Rita platform would serve as a launch control center and would also be used for launch of sounding rockets. The San Marco platform would be dedicated to launch of Scout rockets to orbit. More...
  • Red Lake Sounding rocket range, known to have been used for 23 launches in 1979, reaching up to 215 kilometers altitude. More...

Astrobee Chronology


1960 March 22 - . Launch Site: Eglin. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee 500. LV Configuration: Astrobee 500 Geodetic flares. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: AFCRL. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1961 March 8 - . 17:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Eglin. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee 1500. LV Configuration: Astrobee 1500 AE16.305.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: AFCRL. Apogee: 431 km (267 mi).

1961 June 30 - . 17:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Eglin. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee 200. LV Configuration: Astrobee 200 CRL AA15.303. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 29 km (18 mi).

1961 August 1 - . 20:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LC-A. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee 1500. LV Configuration: Astrobee 1500 AA16.304. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Test / geodetic mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: AFCRL. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1961 December 8 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LC-A. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee 1500.
  • Project CAMBRIDGE Geodetic mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: AFCRL. Apogee: 2,190 km (1,360 mi).

1962 January 29 - . 20:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Eglin. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee 200. LV Configuration: Astrobee 200 CRL AA15.109.
  • Day Airglow Test / aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1962 April 18 - . 19:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Eglin. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee 200. LV Configuration: Astrobee 200 CRL AA15.285.
  • Mid-latitude B field Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 221 km (137 mi).

1962 April 30 - . 18:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Eglin. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee 200. LV Configuration: Astrobee 200 CRL AA15.196.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 255 km (158 mi).

1962 July 9 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LC-B. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee 1500. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Magnetosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: Sandia. Apogee: 1.00 km (0.60 mi).

1963 April 8 - . 11:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Complex: Wallops Island LA2. Launch Pad: LA2A. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee 1500. LV Configuration: Astrobee 1500 NASA 16.01GT. FAILURE: Failure.
1963 December 9 - . 05:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee 200. LV Configuration: Astrobee 200 AC15.610. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Ionization detector Aeronomy / aurora mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 242 km (150 mi).

1964 June 10 - . 05:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee 200. LV Configuration: Astrobee 200 CRL AC15.373.
  • Sphere Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 343 km (213 mi).

1964 July 18 - . 12:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee 200. LV Configuration: Astrobee 200 CRL AC15.363.
  • Dayglow spectra Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 207 km (128 mi).

1964 October 21 - . 19:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Complex: Wallops Island LA2. Launch Pad: LA2A. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee 1500. LV Configuration: Astrobee 1500 NASA 16.02GT.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 1,950 km (1,210 mi).

1966 January 23 - . 06:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee 200. LV Configuration: Astrobee 200 CRL AC15.732.
  • Electron flux Ionosphere / aurora mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: AFCRL. Apogee: 301 km (187 mi).

1966 January 28 - . 06:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee 200. LV Configuration: Astrobee 200 CRL AC15.733. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Electron flux Ionosphere / aurora mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: AFCRL. Apogee: 61 km (37 mi).

1966 December 14 - . 08:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee 200. LV Configuration: Astrobee 200 CRL AC15.735.
  • AE15.735 electron flux Chemical release / aurora mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 212 km (131 mi).

1967 February 25 - . 02:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Complex: Wallops Island LA2. Launch Pad: LA2A?. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee 1500. LV Configuration: Astrobee 1500 NASA 16.05US.
  • Solar radio frequencies mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 2,380 km (1,470 mi).

1967 August 30 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Complex: Wallops Island LA2. Launch Pad: LA2A?. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee 1500. LV Configuration: Astrobee 1500 NASA 16.03GR.
  • Radio astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 1,500 km (900 mi).

1968 April 20 - . 17:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Complex: Wallops Island LA2. Launch Pad: LA2A?. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee 1500. LV Configuration: Astrobee 1500 NASA 16.04UI.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 1,250 km (770 mi).

1969 October 15 - . 22:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Complex: Wallops Island LA2. Launch Pad: LA2A?. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee 1500. LV Configuration: Astrobee 1500 NASA 16.06GR.
  • RAE-B Test Radio astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 2,575 km (1,600 mi).

1970 June 8 - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee D. LV Configuration: Astrobee D Test 2.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 98 km (60 mi).

1970 June 8 - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee D. LV Configuration: Astrobee D Test 1.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 98 km (60 mi).

1971 January 19 - . 19:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee D. LV Configuration: Astrobee D Robin.
  • AFCRL 71-1 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 146 km (90 mi).

1971 January 21 - . 18:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee D. LV Configuration: Astrobee D Robin.
  • AFCRL 71-2 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 130 km (80 mi).

1971 January 21 - . 19:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee D. LV Configuration: Astrobee D Robin.
  • AFCRL 71-3 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 129 km (80 mi).

1971 January 21 - . 19:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee D. LV Configuration: Astrobee D Robin.
  • AFCRL 71-4 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 132 km (82 mi).

1971 January 21 - . 20:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee D. LV Configuration: Astrobee D Robin.
  • AFCRL 71-5 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 132 km (82 mi).

1971 January 21 - . 21:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee D. LV Configuration: Astrobee D Robin.
  • AFCRL 71-6 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 127 km (78 mi).

1972 January 28 - . 21:08 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee D. LV Configuration: Astrobee D CRL A30.116-1.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF CRL. Apogee: 117 km (72 mi).

1972 January 29 - . 05:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee D. LV Configuration: Astrobee D CRL A30.116-2.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF CRL. Apogee: 122 km (75 mi).

1972 March 6 - . 12:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee D. LV Configuration: Astrobee D CRL A30.205-3.
  • Infrared emission Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF CRL. Apogee: 86 km (53 mi).

1972 March 9 - . 10:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee D. LV Configuration: Astrobee D CRL A30.205-4.
  • Infrared emission Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF CRL. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1972 September 26 - . 18:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Complex: Wallops Island LA1. Launch Pad: LA1?. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee F. LV Configuration: Astrobee F NASA 12.20GT.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 199 km (123 mi).

1972 December 6 - . 06:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee D. LV Configuration: Astrobee D CRL A30.205-1. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Auroral Quiet infrared Ionosphere / aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF CRL. Apogee: 27 km (16 mi).

1972 December 9 - . 01:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee D. LV Configuration: Astrobee D CRL A30.205-2.
  • Auroral Quiet infrared Ionosphere / aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF CRL. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1973 March 21 - . 10:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee D. LV Configuration: Astrobee D CRL A30.205-5.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF CRL. Apogee: 78 km (48 mi).

1973 April 6 - . 08:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee D. LV Configuration: Astrobee D CRL A30.205-6.
  • Enhanced OH Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF CRL. Apogee: 78 km (48 mi).

1973 June 30 - . 20:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee D. LV Configuration: Astrobee D NASA 23.01GT.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 93 km (57 mi).

1973 October 3 - . 01:40 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee D. LV Configuration: Astrobee D CRL A30.311-1.
  • Infrared Radiometer Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF CRL. Apogee: 53 km (32 mi).

1973 October 3 - . 02:27 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee D. LV Configuration: Astrobee D CRL A30.311-2.
  • Infrared Radiometer Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF CRL. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1973 October 3 - . 06:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee D. LV Configuration: Astrobee D CRL A30.311-3.
  • Infrared Radiometer Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF CRL. Apogee: 102 km (63 mi).

1974 February 8 - . 04:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee D. LV Configuration: Astrobee D CRL A30.311-4.
  • Tracking test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF CRL. Apogee: 91 km (56 mi).

1974 April 11 - . 23:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee D. LV Configuration: Astrobee D CRL A30.413-1. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF CRL. Apogee: 83 km (51 mi).

1974 April 12 - . 23:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee D. LV Configuration: Astrobee D CRL A30.413-2.
  • VLF Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF CRL. Apogee: 129 km (80 mi).

1974 May 8 - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee F. LV Configuration: Astrobee F NASA 12.21GT. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 155 km (96 mi).

1974 October 10 - . 16:37 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee D. LV Configuration: Astrobee D NASA 23.05UE.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1975 February 26 - . 22:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee D. LV Configuration: Astrobee D CRL A30.413-3.
  • Gerdian Condenser Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF CRL. Apogee: 104 km (64 mi).

1975 March 1 - . 01:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee D. LV Configuration: Astrobee D CRL A30.311-6.
  • Infrared / OH Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF CRL. Apogee: 111 km (68 mi).

1975 May 15 - . 15:25 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee F. LV Configuration: Astrobee F NASA 25.03GT-NP.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 224 km (139 mi).

1975 July 15 - . 15:03 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee D. LV Configuration: Astrobee D NASA 23.02UE.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 76 km (47 mi).

1975 October 14 - . 10:30 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee F. LV Configuration: Astrobee F CRL A31.320-02.
  • Zodiacal infrared Infrared astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 265 km (164 mi).

1975 December 2 - . 12:57 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee D. LV Configuration: Astrobee D CRL A30.311-8.
  • Twilight D-Region Aeronomy / technology mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF CRL. Apogee: 120 km (70 mi).

1975 December 2 - . 13:50 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee D. LV Configuration: Astrobee D CRL A30.311-5.
  • Twilight D-Region Aeronomy / technology mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF CRL. Apogee: 124 km (77 mi).

1975 December 2 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee D. LV Configuration: Astrobee D CRL A30.311-7.
  • Twilight D-Region Aeronomy / technology mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF CRL. Apogee: 125 km (77 mi).

1975 December 3 - . 00:35 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee D. LV Configuration: Astrobee D CRL A30.413-5.
  • Twilight D-Region Aeronomy / technology mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF CRL. Apogee: 125 km (77 mi).

1975 December 3 - . 00:59 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee D. LV Configuration: Astrobee D CRL A30.205-7.
  • Twilight D-Region Aeronomy / technology mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF CRL. Apogee: 125 km (77 mi).

1975 December 3 - . 02:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee D. LV Configuration: Astrobee D CRL A30.413-4.
  • Twilight D-Region Aeronomy / technology mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF CRL. Apogee: 127 km (78 mi).

1976 January 18 - . 19:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee D. LV Configuration: Astrobee D NASA 23.03UE.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 76 km (47 mi).

1976 January 23 - . 19:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee D. LV Configuration: Astrobee D NASA 23.04UE.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 76 km (47 mi).

1976 March 30 - . 16:50 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee F. LV Configuration: Astrobee F NASA 25.13CS-NT.
  • LPARL Solar Corona Solar x-ray / test - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 230 km (140 mi).

1976 May 13 - . 02:51 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee D. LV Configuration: Astrobee D NASA 23.06UE.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1976 August 11 - . 15:45 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee D. LV Configuration: Astrobee D NASA 23.07UE.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1977 January 8 - . 19:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee D. LV Configuration: Astrobee D NASA 23.08UE.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 83 km (51 mi).

1977 February 16 - . 03:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee F. LV Configuration: Astrobee F NASA 25.15GG.
  • Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 198 km (123 mi).

1977 February 20 - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee F.
  • LUX / ASE Wolter I Solar x-ray mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 270 km (160 mi).

1977 March 12 - . 03:30 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee F. LV Configuration: Astrobee F NASA 25.20UG.
  • Astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 225 km (139 mi).

1977 March 19 - . 06:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee F. LV Configuration: Astrobee F NASA 25.25UE.
  • Auroral Oxides Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 195 km (121 mi).

1977 July 21 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee F. LV Configuration: Astrobee F NASA 25.16GG.
  • Astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 206 km (128 mi).

1977 July 27 - . 05:35 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee F. LV Configuration: Astrobee F NASA 25.21UH.
  • Wolter I X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 190 km (110 mi).

1977 September 29 - . 17:45 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee F. LV Configuration: Astrobee F NASA 25.22UL.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 257 km (159 mi).

1977 December 11 - . 07:45 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee F. LV Configuration: Astrobee F NASA 25.17GG.
  • UIT-Prototype F1 Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 226 km (140 mi).

1978 January 9 - . 20:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee F. LV Configuration: Astrobee F NASA 25.29GA.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 262 km (162 mi).

1978 January 10 - . 06:15 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee F. LV Configuration: Astrobee F NASA 25.12UH.
  • X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 196 km (121 mi).

1978 January 21 - . 09:01 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee F. LV Configuration: Astrobee F GL A31.603.
  • CHARGING Technology mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF GL. Apogee: 258 km (160 mi).

1978 March 8 - . 04:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee F. LV Configuration: Astrobee F NASA 25.23UH.
  • Wolter I X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 190 km (110 mi).

1978 March 13 - . 07:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee F. LV Configuration: Astrobee F NASA 25.31UE.
  • Auroral NO Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 198 km (123 mi).

1978 May 15 - . 09:05 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee F. LV Configuration: Astrobee F NASA 25.26DG.
  • NRL Mk II ultraviolet Camera Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 211 km (131 mi).

1978 July 20 - . 04:30 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee F. LV Configuration: Astrobee F NASA 25.37UH.
  • X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 190 km (110 mi).

1978 September 20 - . 02:58 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee F. LV Configuration: Astrobee F NASA 25.28UL.
  • Extreme ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 224 km (139 mi).

1978 September 26 - . 05:05 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee F. LV Configuration: Astrobee F NASA 25.42GG.
  • Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 231 km (143 mi).

1978 December 1 - . 07:20 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee F. LV Configuration: Astrobee F NASA 25.38UL.
  • JHU UVT F9 (Jupiter) Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 238 km (147 mi).

1978 December 11 - . 03:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee F. LV Configuration: Astrobee F NASA 25.01UH.
  • X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 164 km (101 mi).

1979 January 9 - . 11:53 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee F. LV Configuration: Astrobee F NASA 25.32UL.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 214 km (132 mi).

1979 January 17 - . 20:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee F. LV Configuration: Astrobee F NASA 25.10AS.
  • Solar mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 226 km (140 mi).

1979 January 28 - . 03:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee F. LV Configuration: Astrobee F NASA 25.41UE. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Nitric Oxide Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1979 February 20 - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee D. LV Configuration: Astrobee D NASA 23.11UU.
  • Nitric Oxide Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1979 February 26 - . 16:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Red Lake. Launch Complex: Red Lake MCM. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee D. LV Configuration: Astrobee D NASA 23.09UE.
  • Plasma / eclipse mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi).

1979 February 27 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Red Lake. Launch Complex: Red Lake MCM. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee D. LV Configuration: Astrobee D NASA 23.10UE.
  • Plasma / eclipse mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi).

1979 March 15 - . 05:20 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee F. LV Configuration: Astrobee F NASA 25.45UH.
  • X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 216 km (134 mi).

1979 March 21 - . 03:45 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee F. LV Configuration: Astrobee F NASA 25.33UG.
  • Astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 221 km (137 mi).

1979 May 21 - . 05:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee F. LV Configuration: Astrobee F NASA 25.43GG.
  • UIT Prototype Astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 226 km (140 mi).

1979 May 21 - . 06:40 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee F. LV Configuration: Astrobee F NASA 25.44GG.
  • Astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 240 km (140 mi).

1979 June 2 - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee F. LV Configuration: Astrobee F NASA 25.27DG.
  • NRL far ultraviolet Spectrograph Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1979 June 7 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee D. LV Configuration: Astrobee D NASA 23.12UU.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1979 August 3 - . 09:20 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee F. LV Configuration: Astrobee F GL A31.702.
  • FWIR III Aeronomy / infrared astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF GL. Apogee: 172 km (106 mi).

1979 August 17 - . 21:15 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee F. LV Configuration: Astrobee F NASA 25.11AS.
  • Solar mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 225 km (139 mi).

1979 September 16 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee D. LV Configuration: Astrobee D NASA 23.16UE.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1979 September 20 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee D. LV Configuration: Astrobee D NASA 23.13UU.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1979 September 24 - . 11:15 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee F. LV Configuration: Astrobee F NASA 25.39UG.
  • JHU UVS Astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 246 km (152 mi).

1979 October 1 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee D. LV Configuration: Astrobee D NASA 23.14UU.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1979 October 23 - . 03:15 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee F. LV Configuration: Astrobee F NASA 25.49GG.
  • Astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 227 km (141 mi).

1979 December 14 - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee F. LV Configuration: Astrobee F NASA 25.48UG.
  • Astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1979 December 18 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee D. LV Configuration: Astrobee D NASA 23.15UU.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1980 January 21 - . 08:05 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee F. LV Configuration: Astrobee F NASA 25.51UH.
  • X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 216 km (134 mi).

1980 February 16 - . 08:25 GMT - . Launch Site: San Marco. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee D. LV Configuration: Astrobee D NASA 23.17UE.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 78 km (48 mi).

1980 February 16 - . 20:30 GMT - . Launch Site: San Marco. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee D. LV Configuration: Astrobee D NASA 23.18UE.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 76 km (47 mi).

1980 March 22 - . 10:30 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee F. LV Configuration: Astrobee F NASA 25.47UH.
  • Soft XRB 1 X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 217 km (134 mi).

1980 March 28 - . 06:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee F. LV Configuration: Astrobee F NASA 25.59UH.
  • UM Airglow Payload Aurora mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 198 km (123 mi).

1980 May 22 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee F. LV Configuration: Astrobee F NASA 25.63GS.
  • Solar Constant 3 Solar mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 249 km (154 mi).

1980 June 16 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee F. LV Configuration: Astrobee F NASA 25.58DG.
  • NRL far ultraviolet Spectrograph Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 217 km (134 mi).

1980 June 27 - . 19:01 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee F. LV Configuration: Astrobee F NASA 25.46UE.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 260 km (160 mi).

1980 August 9 - . 07:30 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee F. LV Configuration: Astrobee F NASA 25.53GG.
  • UIT Prototype Astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 214 km (132 mi).

1980 November 1 - . 06:44 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee F. LV Configuration: Astrobee F NASA 25.50UG.
  • Astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 227 km (141 mi).

1981 January 20 - . 04:50 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee F. LV Configuration: Astrobee F NASA 25.62DG.
  • NRL far ultraviolet Spectrograph Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 209 km (129 mi).

1981 January 29 - . 04:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee F. LV Configuration: Astrobee F NASA 25.60UE.
  • UM Airglow payload Aurora mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 189 km (117 mi).

1981 October 17 - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee F. LV Configuration: Astrobee F NASA 25.40UH.
  • MIT X-ray? X-ray Astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1983 March 2 - . 02:17 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee F. LV Configuration: Astrobee F GL A31.200.
  • Sensor Ejection System Technology test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 197 km (122 mi).

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