Encyclopedia Astronautica
EARL



earli.jpg
Earl 1 Spaceplane
Credit: Mark Lindroos
Vertical takoff / horizontal landing two-stage launch vehicle study from the 1980s.

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Associated Launch Vehicles
  • EARL I German winged orbital launch vehicle. A larger Earl 14 configuration was studied, but the study centered on the Earl 5 / 18 / 7 configurations. The second stage was mounted on top of the booster. Earl 5 and 7 had winged second stages, with payloads to low earth orbit of 5380 kg to 7180 kg. Earl 14 featured an expendable upper stage which increased payload to 18,000 kg. More...
  • EARL German winged orbital launch vehicle. Vertical takoff / horizontal landing two-stage launch vehicle study from the 1980s. More...
  • EARL II German winged orbital launch vehicle. Later EARL version from 1990. Parallel staging, both stages winged and recoverable. Expendable upper stage for heavy-lift missions. More...

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