Encyclopedia Astronautica
High earth orbit


Category of spacecraft.

More... - Chronology...


Associated Spacecraft
  • S-2 American earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1959.08.07, Explorer 6. First Earth photo; radiation data. More...
  • P-14 American solar satellite. 3 launches, 1961.02.24 (Explorer) to 1961.05.24 (Explorer). Magnetic field data. More...
  • EPE American solar satellite. 4 launches, 1961.08.16 (Explorer 12) to 1964.12.21 (Explorer 26). Radiation and solar wind data. More...
  • ERS American earth magnetosphere satellite. 7 launches, 1962.09.17 (TRS) to 1967.04.28. Environmental Research Satellites were especially designed for piggyback launching from large primary mission vehicles. More...
  • TRS American technology satellite. 5 launches, 1963.05.09 (TRS 2) to 1964.07.17 (TRS 6). TRS satellites undertook a range of engineering experiments related to radiation-hardening of solar cells and spacecraft electronics. More...
  • Vela American nuclear detection surveillance satellite. 6 launches, 1963.10.17 (Vela 2) to 1965.07.20 (Vela 6). The Vela (meaning "watchman" in Spanish) series of spacecraft were designed to monitor world-wide compliance with the 1963 nuclear test ban treaty. More...
  • IMP American earth magnetosphere satellite. 10 launches, 1963.11.27 (Explorer 18) to 1973.10.26 (Explorer 50). More...
  • Elektron-B Russian earth magnetosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1964.01.30 (Elektron 2) to 1964.07.11 (Elektron 4). The Elektron mission was one of the earliest Soviet satellites to be authorized following the initial Sputnik series. More...
  • OGO American earth magnetosphere satellite. 6 launches, 1964.09.05 (OGO 1) to 1969.06.05 (OGO 6). More...
  • OV5 American earth magnetosphere satellite. 8 launches, 1967.04.28 (OV5-03) to 1969.05.23 (OV5-09). OV5 was a version of the USAF Environmental Research Satellites dedicated to radiation research and VLF plasma wave detection. More...
  • Advanced Vela American nuclear detection surveillance satellite. 6 launches, 1967.04.28 (Vela 7) to 1970.04.08 (Vela 11). More...
  • Solrad American solar satellite. 4 launches, 1968.03.05 (Explorer 37) to 1976.03.15 (Solrad 11B). SOLRAD was Satellite Techniques' first major project and NRL's first post-Vanguard satellite. More...
  • HEOS European earth magnetosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1968.12.05 (HEOS 1) and 1972.01.31 (HEOS 2). Highly Eccentric Orbiting Satellite; examined magnetic fields outside of Earth's magnetosphere. More...
  • SSS American earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1971.11.15, Explorer 45. Studies magnetosphere, energetic particles. More...
  • SRET French technology satellite. 2 launches, 1972.04.04 (SRET 1) and 1975.06.05 (SRET 2). Test satellite. More...
  • Prognoz Russian earth magnetosphere satellite. 10 launches, 1972.04.14 (Prognoz 1) to 1985.04.26 (Intercosmos 23). This spacecraft, built by Lavochkin, was launched from 1972 for study of geomagnetic fields, radiation, and solar physics. More...
  • Hawkeye American solar satellite. One launch, 1974.06.03, Explorer 52. Solar wind experiments. Follow-on to Injun. More...
  • COS European technology satellite. One launch, 1975.08.09. CERS/ESRO satellite, first European Space Agency satellite. More...
  • ESA-Geos European earth magnetosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1977.04.20 (ESA-Geos 1) and 1978.07.14 (ESA-Geos 2). Magnetospheric research. European Space Agency satellite. More...
  • ISEE American earth magnetosphere satellite. 3 launches, 1977.10.22 (ISEE 1) to 1978.08.12 (ISEE 3). These Explorer-class heliocentric spacecraft were part of the mother/daughter/heliocentric mission (ISEE 1, 2, and 3). More...
  • Magion Czech earth magnetosphere satellite. 5 launches, 1978.10.24 (Magion 1) to 1996.08.29 (Magion 5). The Czechoslovak satellite MAGION researched the magnetosphere and ionosphere of the earth. More...
  • SCATHA American communications technology satellite. One launch, 1979.01.30. More...
  • CAT European technology satellite. 5 launches, 1979.12.24 (CAT 1) to 1981.12.20 (Tech. capsule). More...
  • Dynamics Explorer American earth magnetosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1981.08.03 (Dynamics Explorer 1) and (Dynamics Explorer 2). Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space. More...
  • Astron Russian x-ray astronomy satellite. One launch, 1983.03.23. Astrophysics satellite based on the Venera 4V-2 bus design. Electrophysical research of galactic and extragalactic sources of ultraviolet ray and X-ray emission. More...
  • Exosat European x-ray astronomy satellite. One launch, 1983.05.26. EXOSAT was a space research satellite of the European Space Agency. More...
  • AMPTE American earth magnetosphere satellite. 4 launches, 1984.08.16 (CCE-1) to (Solar Cell Experiment). Charge Composition Explorer; detected tracer ions released into magnetosphere by IRM. More...
  • Viking (Sweden) Swedish earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1986.02.22, Viking. Sweden's first satellite, Viking, was originally initiated as a means of providing experience in satellite system development and management. More...
  • Granat Russian x-ray astronomy satellite. One launch, 1989.12.01. Granat was a Lavochkin design with the mission of making gamma ray observations in energy ranges of 3 to 200 keV. More...
  • CRRES American earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1990.07.25. Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite. Chemical release experiment. More...
  • KRT-25 Radio Telescope Russian radio astronomy satellite. Study 1990. In collaboration with the European Space Agency, a 25 m diameter space radio telescope was studied for launch by Energia in 2001. More...
  • Geotail Japanese earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1992.07.24. Measured magnetosphere and Earth's geomagnetic tail; Diffuse Ultraviolet Explorer package bolted to Delta 2 second stage. More...
  • STRV British technology satellite. 4 launches, 1994.06.17 (STRV-1B) to 2000.11.16 (STRV-1d). More...
  • Wind American earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1994.11.01. Wind was designed to provide continuous measurement of the solar wind, particularly charged particles and magnetic field data. More...
  • Prognoz-M Russian earth magnetosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1995.08.02 (Interbol 1) to 1996.08.29 (Interbol 2). Interbol was originally an Intercosmos project with a launch planned for the late 1980's. More...
  • ISO European infrared astronomy satellite. One launch, 1995.11.17. Infrared astrophysics. More...
  • Polar American earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1996.02.24. Polar was designed to measure the entry, energization, and transport of plasma into the magnetosphere as part of the International Solar Terrestrial Program (ISTP). More...
  • Haruka Japanese radio astronomy satellite. One launch, 1997.02.12. The Muses B satellite was renamed 'Haruka', meaning 'Far-away', after launch. It formed the spacesegment of the VLBI Space Observatory Program. More...
  • MAQSAT European technology satellite. 4 launches, 1997.10.30 (MAQSAT-H/TEAMSAT) to 2005.02.12 (Maqsat 3). MAQSATs were mass model and technology satellites built by Kayser-Threde, Munich, and lofted during the test flights of the Ariane 5. More...
  • YES European tether technology satellite. 2 launches, 1997.10.30 (YES) and 2007.09.14 (YES). Young Engineers Satellite sponsored by the European Space Tech. More...
  • Equator-S German earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1997.12.02. German geophysics satellite. More...
  • Kakehashi Japanese communications satellite. One launch, 1998.02.21. Name means 'Bridge', was called Communications and Broadcasting Experimental Test Satellite (COMETS) before launch. It contained Ka-band communications and inter-satellite data relay payloads. More...
  • Chandra American x-ray astronomy satellite. One launch, 1999.07.23. More...
  • XMM European x-ray astronomy satellite. One launch, 1999.12.10. ESA's X-ray Multi-Mirror space observatory was the biggest science satellite ever built in Europe. The spacecraft's X-ray optics covered a spectral range of 1-120 nanometers (12keV-0.1keV). More...
  • IMAGE American solar satellite. One launch, 2000.03.25. The IMAGE spacecraft imaged remote particle populations in the magnetosphere. More...
  • Cluster 2 European earth magnetosphere satellite. 4 launches, 2000.07.16 (Samba) to 2000.08.09 (Tango). More...

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