Encyclopedia Astronautica
Index


10Kh.
  • Chelomei developed a series of cruise missiles derived from the German V-1, none of which reached production.

1MV.

  • Family of spacecraft.

2005 China Female Group.

  • Selection of female astronauts for future Shenzhou missions was announced, but no details forthcoming tod ate.

217.

  • Family of missiles.

2MV.

  • Family of spacecraft.

3MV.

  • Family of spacecraft.

4MV.

  • Family of spacecraft.

5MV.

  • Family of spacecraft.

8D43.

  • Kosberg N2O4/UDMH rocket engine family. Low-expansion ratio gimballed variant developed for UR-500. In initial configuration 4 would be clustered with 4 x Glushko 11D43. Abandoned in favor of 6 x Glushko 11D48. Further developed into the RD-0208 and RD-0210 engines.

A-135.

  • Two-tier Russian anti-ballistic missile system for the defence of Moscow, with both endoatmospheric and exoatmospheric interceptor missiles. After protracted development, the system was said to have gone into operation in 1995.

A-35.

  • First operational Soviet ABM system, going into limited operation around Moscow in 1972.

A4.

  • The V-2, known as the A4 to its developers, was the basis for most of the rocketry that exists in the world today. It was ineffective as a weapon of war, but represented a quantum leap in technology. The A1, A2, A3, and A5 were steps in the development of the missile. Later versions - the A6 through A12 - were planned to take the Third Reich to the planets.

Academy of Sciences Group 1 - 1967.

  • Requirement: scientists for lunar landing missions.

Academy of Sciences Group 1 Supplemental - 1968.

  • Requirement: senior scientist to command Academy of Sciences cosmonaut corps.

Academy of Sciences Group 2 - 1980.

  • Requirement: female scientist cosmonauts to visit Salyut and Mir space stations, primarily for propaganda purposes, to upstage American female astronaut flights aboard the shuttle.

Active.

  • Category of launch vehicles and spacecraft.

Actor.

  • Category of persons.

Aerobee.

  • In late 1945 James Van Allen was assigned by John Hopkins University to survey sounding rocket requirements for upper atmosphere research. The V-2 was found to be too heavy and complex. In 1946 Van Allen decided that what was needed was a small rocket, derived from the Aerojet Wac Corporal and the Bumblebee missile developed under a US Navy program. This combination of an Aerojet booster and a Bumblebee second stage was dubbed the Aerobee.

Aerodynamicist.

  • Category of persons.

African.

  • Category of persons.

Agency.

  • Agencies or institutions overseeing design, development, construction, or operation of space-related systems.

Agni.

  • Two stage ballistic missile consisting of 1 x Agni + 1 x Prithvi.

Agni-2.

  • DRDO solid rocket engine family.

Agni-3.

  • DRDO solid rocket engine family.

Air augmented rocket.

  • Category of engines.

Air Drop Zone.

  • Category of launch sites.

Air Force Group 1 - 1960.

  • Requirement: pilot astronauts for the Vostok program.

Air Force Group 10 - 1989.

  • Requirement: pilot cosmonauts for Mir missions.

Air Force Group 11 - 1990.

  • Requirement: pilot cosmonauts for Mir missions.

Air Force Group 11 Supplemental - 1991.

  • Requirement: pilot cosmonaut for Mir missions.

Air Force Group 11 Supplemental - 1996.

  • Requirement: pilot cosmonaut for Mir missions.

Air Force Group 12 - 1997.

  • Requirement: pilot cosmonauts for ISS missions.

Air Force Group 12 Supplemental - 1997.

  • Requirement: flight of representative of Russian Preisdent's office on Mir and ISS missions.

Air Force Group 12 Supplemental - 1998.

  • Requirement: flight of representative of Russian space forces on ISS missions.

Air Force Group 13 - 2003.

  • Requirement: pilot cosmonauts for ISS missions.

Air Force Group 14 - 2006.

  • Requirement: pilot cosmonauts for ISS missions.

Air Force Group 2 - 1963.

  • Requirement: astronauts for the Soyuz manned spaceflight program.

Air Force Group 2 Supplemental - 1964.

  • Requirement: experienced test pilot for the Soyuz manned spaceflight program.

Air Force Group 3 - 1965.

  • Requirement: pilots for planned Soyuz, Soyuz VI, Spiral, and Almaz flights. In 1968-1975 the VVS expected no fewer than 20 Almaz space stations, 50 military 7K-VI missions, 200 Soyuz training spacecraft flights and 400 Soyuz space transport flights.

Air Force Group 4 - 1967.

  • Requirement: engineers for planned Soyuz and Almaz flights. In 1968-1975 the VVS expected no fewer than 20 Almaz space stations, 50 military 7K-VI missions, 200 Soyuz training spacecraft flights and 400 Soyuz space transport flights.

Air Force Group 5 - 1970.

  • Requirement: test pilots for the Spiral spaceplane.

Air Force Group 6 - 1976.

  • Requirement: test pilots for the Buran program.

Air Force Group 7 - 1978.

  • Requirement: pilots for the Buran and Mir programs.

Air Force Group 8 - 1987.

  • Requirement: pilots for the Buran and Mir programs.

aircraft-launched.

aircraft-launched winged.

  • Category of launch vehicles.

air-to-air.

  • Category of missiles.

air-to-surface.

  • Category of missiles.

ait.

  • The ait vehicles were developed to support the USAF Airborne Intercept Technology program. They consisted of a Minuteman SR19AJ1 first stage (the basic ait version) or Thiokol Castor IVB first stage (designated ait-2), and a Minuteman II M57A1 second stage. A front-end module housed the payloads, the control system, GPS, and inertial guidance electronics.

AJ10.

  • Aerojet Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine family, originally designed for the Vanguard, then developed into versions for the Able and Delta upper stages.

AJ23.

  • Aerojet lox/lh2 rocket engine. The AJ23 was a series of high-performance staged combusion engine designs. None ever made it to production.

AJ-260.

  • Aerojet solid rocket engine family, the largest monolithic solid rocket motors ever tested.

AJ60.

  • Design announced on 3 October 2000 for a new cryogenic upper-stage engine aimed at the very large commercial spacecraft market.

ALCM.

  • American air-to-surface missile family. Major long-range standoff attack missile of the US Air Force's strategic bombers from the 1980's.

Algol.

  • Aerojet solid rocket engine family. This rocket started as a Polaris test motor with a 40 inch diameter, which at the time was the largest solid motor ever tested. First flight 1960.

all-solid.

  • Category of launch vehicles.

Almaz.

  • Family of spacecraft.

Almaz Engineer Group 1 - 1972.

  • Requirement: engineer for Almaz military space station missions.

Almaz Engineer Group 2 - 1973.

  • Requirement: engineer for Almaz military space station missions.

Almaz Engineer Group 3 - 1978.

  • Requirement: engineers for Almaz military space station missions.

ALV.

  • Family of small low-cost all-solid-propellant launch vehicles, which use numerous off-the-shelf components and require minimal ground support

Amateur radio communications satellite.

  • Type of spacecraft.

America's Space Prize.

  • Following the success of the Ansari X-Prize in motivating flight of the first commercial suborbital manned spacecraft, Robert Bigelow announced the 'America's Space Prize' - $ 50 million - to the first team to fly an orbital manned spacecraft that completes two missions safely and successfully by January 10, 2010.

AMROC.

  • The AMROC corporation proposed to develop low-cost hybrid-propulsion orbital launch vehicles in the 1980's. Actual flight hardware did not go beyond a small test vehicle.

Angara.

  • The Angara was a new all-Russian heavy launch vehicle designed to replace the Zenit (which was built by a Ukrainian company) and Proton (which had launch pads only on Kazakh territory). The booster was sized for rail transport of modular manufactured components to cosmodromes at Plesetsk and Svobodniy. The design featured a single modular core that could be clustered for large payloads or used as a first stage with a variety of existing upper stages. All plans for the Angara were dependent on financing and subject to constant change.

Antares.

  • Antares was a re-entry vehicle test booster. The first three stages lofted the fourth stage and RV model to 150 km altitude. The fourth stage then fired downward to ram the RV at Mach 7 into the atmosphere.

Antey-2500.

  • The Antey-2500 was a new generation of the S-300V, capable of shooting down re-entry vehicles of IRBMs of up to 2500 km range.

anti-ballistic.

  • Category of missiles and spacecraft.

Anti-Ballistic Missile Site.

  • Category of launch sites.

anti-satellite.

  • Category of missiles and spacecraft.

anti-satellite target.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Apache.

  • The Apache upper stage was an improved version of the Cajun. The Thiokol engine used aluminised polyurethane propellant with a higher specific impulse and phenolic lining in the steel nozzle. Cost to NASA was $ 6,000 per rocket. The Apache could be used in a single stage version, but was normally used with a booster stage, usually the Nike.

Apollo.

  • Family of spacecraft.

Arcas.

  • The Arcas (All-Purpose Rocket for Collecting Atmospheric Soundings) was developed by the Atlantic Research Corporation for the Office of Naval Research (ONR) with the support of the Navy Bureau of Aeronautics and the Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories. Primarily a meteorological rocket, the Arcas was first fired in July 1959. The single-stage version was designed to lift 5.4 kg to 64 km. For more demanding missions, several versions of boosted Arcas were developed, as well as a stretched Super Arcas motor.

Architect.

  • Category of persons.

Ares.

  • The design selected to boost America's Orion manned spacecraft into space in the 21st Century was a family of launch vehicles dubbed Ares. Originally sold as being derivatives of space shuttle technology, tinkering by NASA engineers and necessary changes during development quickly resulted in the designs being essentially all-new. After inevitable delays and cost escalation, the Ares was cancelled in 2010.

Ariane.

  • First successful European commercial launch vehicle, developed from L3S Europa launch vehicle replacement design. Development of the Ariane 1 was authorised in July 1973, took eight years, and cost 2 billion 1986 Euros.

Ariane 5.

  • The Ariane 5 was a completely new design, unrelated to the earlier Ariane 1 to 4. It consisted of a single-engine Lox/LH2 core stage flanked by two solid rocket boosters. Preparatory work began in 1984. Full scale development began in 1988 and cost $ 8 billion. The design was sized for the Hermes manned spaceplane, later cancelled. This resulted in the booster being a bit too large for the main commercial payload, geosynchronous communications satellites. As a result, development of an uprated version capable of launching two such satellites at a time was funded in 2000.

Arrow.

  • The Arrow weapon system was a ground-based, ballistic missile defense system designed to protect Israel against ballistic missiles.

Artist.

  • Category of persons.

Asp.

  • Sounding rocket (Atmospheric Sounding Projectile) originally designed against a US Navy Bureeau of Ships requirement to sample the mushroom clouds of nuclear explosions. Developed by Cooper Development Corporation for the Naval Radiological Defense Laboratory. Flight test in 1956. Designed to lift 13.6 kg to 40 km.

Asteroids.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Astrobee.

  • Aerojet-designed family of sounding rockets conceived as a lower-cost replacement of the liquid-propellant Aerobee.

Astronaut.

  • Category of persons, applied to those trained for spaceflight outside of Russia and China.

Astronomer.

  • Category of persons.

Astronomy.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Astrophysicist.

  • Category of persons.

ATACMS.

  • American short range ballistic missile family. US Army's short/medium-range tactical ballistic missile system from the 1990's.

Atea.

  • Family of launch vehicles.

Athena.

  • Privately funded family of solid propellant satellite launch vehicles. Originally known as LMLV (Lockheed-Martin Launch Vehicle); LLV (Lockheed Launch Vehicle). Sales did not develop as hoped by the company after the MEO-satellite bubble burst in the 1990's.

Athena RTV.

  • The Athena was designed to simulate the re-entry environment of an intercontinental ballistic missile and was one of the few examples of sustained interstate missile tests within the United States. The project was begun in February 1964 with the first of several hundred launches from Green River, Utah, to impact points in the US Army's White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico.

Atlas.

  • The Atlas rocket, originally developed as America's first ICBM, was the basis for most early American space exploration and was that country's most successful medium-lift commercial launch vehicle. It launched America's first astronaut into orbit; the first generations of spy satellites; the first lunar orbiters and landers; the first probes to Venus, Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, and Saturn; and was America's most successful commercial launcher of communications satellites. Its innovative stage-and-a-half and 'balloon tank' design provided the best dry-mass fraction of any launch vehicle ever built. It was retired in 2004 after 576 launches in a 47-year career.

Atlas V.

  • The Atlas V launch vehicle system was a completely new design that succeeded the earlier Atlas series. Atlas V vehicles were based on the 3.8-m (12.5-ft) diameter Common Core Booster (CCB) powered by a single Russian RD-180 engine. These could be clustered together, and complemented by a Centaur upper stage, and up to five solid rocket boosters, to achieve a wide range of performance.

Atmosphere sat.

  • Category of spacecraft.

AUOS.

  • Family of spacecraft.

Austrian Commercial Group - 1989.

  • Requirement: Austrian cosmonaut for commercially funded mission to Mir station.

Aviator.

  • Category of persons.

ballistic.

  • Category of missiles.

Balloon.

  • Category of spacecraft.

balloon-launched.

  • Category of launch vehicles.

Bantam.

  • Bristol solid rocket engine.

BE-3.

  • WRE solid rocket engine family.

Belenos.

  • Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Elan + 1 x Aurore

Belier.

  • Family of sounding rockets, developed by Sud Aviation, with the only or upper stage being variants of the Belier stage powered by a Jericho rocket motor. These were the most significant series of French civilian suborbital rockets. Manufacturing licenses were sold to India and Pakistan, becoming the basis of their rocket industries.

Belisama.

  • Family of launch vehicles.

Bell 8000.

  • Bell Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine family. Derived from an engine developed originally for the B-58 Hustler bomber's cancelled rocket pod, it was adapted for use with Lockheed's Agena upper stage for use with the deep black Corona spy satellite.

Berenice.

  • Berenice was Onera's successor to the Antares re-entry vehicle test booster. It was nearly double the mass of Antares.

Biochemist.

  • Category of persons.

Biologist.

  • Category of persons.

Biology.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Biology satellite.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Black Brant.

  • The Black Brant originated in a 1957 Canadian government requirement for a sounding rocket to characterize the ionosphere in order to improve military communications. Bristol Aerospace of Winnipeg, Manitoba was selected to design the rocket, while the Canadian Armament Research and Development Establishment (CARDE) was responsible for the propellant and filling. The lighter production version of the vehicle was renamed Black Brant. Later versions of Black Brant used a variety of booster and upper stages to supplement the original single-stage vehicle.

Black Knight.

  • The Black Knight was a British test vehicle designed to test re-entry vehicles for the Blue Streak MRBM. It was subsequently used for a series of US-sponsored test of RV radar signatures.

Bloodhound.

  • Family of launch vehicles.

Bold Orion.

  • Anti-ballistic missile, air-launched from a B-47 Stratojet, consisting of a Sergeant booster and an Altair upper stage.

Bomarc.

  • Bomarc Mach 3 ramjet surface to air missile; the only surface-to-air missile ever deployed by the US Air Force. Its development in the 1950's played an important role in technological base for later missiles and launch vehicles.

Boost-glide.

British Commercial Group - 1989.

  • Requirement: British cosmonaut for commercially funded mission to Mir station.

Bulava.

  • Family of launch vehicles.

Buran Group - 1978.

  • Requirement: test pilot for the Buran program.

Buran Group 1 - 1978.

  • Requirement: test pilots for the Buran program.

Buran Group 2 - 1985.

  • Requirement: test pilots for Buran spaceplane

Buran Group 3 - 1989.

  • Requirement: test pilots for Buran spaceplane

Buran Group 3 Supplemental - 1990.

  • Requirement: test pilots for Buran spaceplane

Bureaucrat.

  • Category of persons.

Burial.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Burial satellite.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Businessman.

  • Category of persons.

Cajun.

  • The Cajun research rocket was developed as a dimensionally-similar but higher performance successor to the Deacon.

Canada Group 1 - 1983.

  • Requirement: engineer, and scientist astronauts for space shuttle flight billets provided in exchange for Canadian development of the shuttle's remote manipulator arm.

Canada Group 2 - 1992.

  • Requirement: engineer, and scientist astronauts for space shuttle flight billets provided in exchange for Canadian development of the shuttle's remote manipulator arm.

Cancelled.

  • Category of launch vehicles and spacecraft.

Cancelled manned spaceflight.

  • Family of spaceflights.

Canopus.

  • Single stage vehicle.

Cardiologist Group - 1977.

  • Requirement: physician for Salyut space station missions.

Castor 4.

  • Thiokol solid rocket engine family. Series of motors used as Delta strap-on boosters and as first and upper stages for low-cost all-solid-propellant designs.

CEV.

  • NASA's manned spacecraft for the 21st Century, a throwback to the Apollo capsule, a shuttle replacement with an uncertain future.

Chemical engineer.

  • Category of persons.

Chemist.

  • Category of persons.

Chief Designer.

  • Category of persons.

Chief theoretician.

  • Category of persons.

China Group - 1996.

  • Requirement: two trainees to receive intense cosmonaut training in Russia and become instructors for China's astronaut training for the Shenzhou program.

China Group 1 - 1998.

  • Requirement: pilot astronauts for the Shenzhou program.

Chinese Manned Spacecraft.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Chkalov Group 1 - 1987.

  • Requirement: test pilots for Buran spaceplane

Chkalov Group 2 - 1988.

  • Requirement: test pilots for Buran spaceplane

Chkalov Group 3 - 1992.

  • Requirement: test pilots for Buran spaceplane

Chkalov Group 4 - 1993.

  • Requirement: test pilots for Buran spaceplane

Chkalov Group 5 - 1995.

  • Requirement: replace losses in space test pilot group for Buran spaceplane

Circumlunar trajectory.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Cirrus.

  • Cirrus was a two-stage sounding rocket developed by the German Rocket Society in the late 1950's. All launches were made from Cuxhaven, and discontinued when the German government prohibited civilian rocket launches in June 1964.

Civilian comsat store-dump.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Civilian surveillance radarsat.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Civilian surveillance satellite.

  • Category of spacecraft.

CNES Group - 1985.

  • Requirement: French astronauts for spaceflights to Mir space station.

CNES Group 1 - 1985.

  • Requirement: French astronauts for spaceflights to Mir space station,

CNES Group 2 - 1990.

  • Requirement: French astronauts for spaceflights aboard Hermes spaceplane and to Mir and US space stations.

coffin-launched.

  • Category of missiles.

Cold Gas.

  • Category of engines.

Combat spacecraft.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Comet.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Comet probe.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Commercial Group - 1993.

  • Requirement: ESA astronauts for flights to the Mir space station.

Communications.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Communications satellite.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Communications technology sat.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Computer scientist.

  • Category of persons.

Condor.

  • Family of launch vehicles.

Conestoga.

  • Family of launch vehicles.

Corporal.

  • The first US long-range missile, evolved from a series of Army research rockets begun by Caltech in 1944.

Cosmic ray astronomy satellite.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Cosmonaut.

  • Category of persons who have been trained for spaceflight in Russia.

cruise.

  • Category of missiles.

Cuckoo.

  • RO solid rocket engine family.

CZ.

  • China's first ICBM, the DF-5, first flew in 1971. It was a two-stage storable-propellant rocket in the same class as the American Titan, the Russian R-36, or the European Ariane. The DF-5 spawned a long series of Long March ("Chang Zheng") CZ-2, CZ-3, and CZ-4 launch vehicles. These used cryogenic engines for upper stages and liquid-propellant strap-on motors to create a family of 12 Long-March rocket configurations capable of placing up to 9,200 kg into orbit. In 2000 China began development of a new generation of expendable launch vehicles using non-toxic, high-performance propellants with supposedly lower operating costs. However these encountered development delays, and it seemed the reliable Long March series of rockets would continue in operational use for nearly fifty years before being replaced.

CZ-1.

  • China began development of the CZ-1 (Changzheng-1 = Long March-1) launch vehicle in the second half of 1965. The project was undertaken with the specific objective of launching China's first satellite, the DFH-1. The CZ-l's first and second stages were adapted from those of the DF-3 intermediate range ballistic missile. The third stage used a new-design solid rocket motor.

CZ-NGLV.

  • China's family of new generation expendable launch vehicles began development in 2000. Boosters of various capabilities would be assembled from three modular stages of 2.25 m, 3.35 m and 5.0 m diameter. These would be powered by new variable-thrust 120 tonne thrust Lox/Kerosene engines or 50 tonne thrust Lox/LH2 engines.

D-6.

  • First Soviet solid propellant submarine launched ballistic missile. Development began in 1958, but the system was cancelled in 1961 in favour of the D-7 naval version of the RT-15 IRBM (itself in turn cancelled).

DAC Helios.

  • Douglas/Bono 1963 concept for a chemical-boosted / nuclear upper stage launch vehicle, designed as alternatives to the Convair/Ehricke Helios. The baseline version used a nuclear, recoverable upper stage boosted above the atmosphere by a minimum chemical stage.

Dal.

  • Trials of this long range surface-to-air missile were conducted in 1960-1963 but the project was cancelled after the system failed to down a single target. V-200 missiles were installed in the Dal installations built around Leningrad for the failed missile. In a bit of disinformation, the V-400 was paraded in Moscow, and US intelligence, thinking it was operational, applied the SA-5 designation. The SA-5 code was transferred to the V-200 after the La-400 was cancelled.

Daniel.

  • Israel and South Africa collaborated closely in rocket technology in the 1970's and 1980's. South Africa provided Israel with the uranium and test facilities it needed for its strategic weapons programmes. In exchange Israel provided aerospace technology. This included the capability of building the ten-tonne solid propellant rocket motors designed for the Israeli Jericho-2 missile. These motors were the basis of two space launchers for an indigenous 'R5b' space programme. It seems that South Africa also planned to use these motors in a series of missiles to provide a nuclear deterrent.

DC-X.

  • The Space Defense Initiative Office's Single Stage Rocket Technology program of 1990-1995 demonstrated technology readiness for an SSTO vehicle. Despite successful test flights of the DC-X technology demonstrator, no development funding was forthcoming, and designs for prototype and production rockets remained on the drawing boards.

Deacon.

  • The Deacon was an advanced solid rocket motor design cancelled at the end of World War II. In 1947 NACA began using reworked surplus motors to boost instrumented subscale aircraft models to speeds of up to Mach 4. They became a workhorse for the Agency's aerodynamic research, resulting in new production. Thousands were flown, until, by the end of the 1950's, supersonic wind tunnels took over the job.

Delta.

  • The Delta launch vehicle was America's longest-lived, most reliable, and lowest-cost space launch vehicle. Development began in 1955 and it continued in service in the 21st Century despite numerous candidate replacements.

Delta IV.

  • The Delta IV was the world's first all-Lox/LH2 launch vehicle and represented the only all-new-technology launch vehicle developed in the United States since the 1970's. It was the winner of the bulk of the USAF EELV orders and was based on the all-new RS-68-powered Lox/LH2 cryogenic Common Booster Core (CBC). This could be used with new Delta cryogenic upper stages powered by the RL10 engine but unrelated to previous Centaur upper stages.

Design.

  • Category of launch vehicles.

DF-15.

  • Family of launch vehicles.

DF-2.

  • First Chinese IRBM, a single stage missile with the objective of carrying a 1500 kg warhead to Japan. The starting point for the design were R-12 construction drawings and a single exemplar of the missile provided by the Soviet Union prior to the break with Moscow in 1960. Following protracted development the design was accepted by the Chinese military for service in 1970.

DF-21.

  • Family of launch vehicles.

DF-3.

  • The DF-3 project began in 1964 with the objective of developing a nuclear-tipped missile capable of reaching the Philippines (earlier referred to as the DF-1).

DF-31.

  • Version of JL-2. Mobile, solid propellant, land-based, medium range, three-stage ballistic missile. Basis for the KT-1 light orbital launch vehicle. The missile was tested on the ground in 1995. Ejection tests from the transport-launch tube began in 1998. The first flight test took place on 1 August 1999. Deployment was not expected until 2005-2010.

Diamant.

  • In December 1961 France decided to demonstrate an indigenous satellite-launch capability, using stages in development for its ballistic missile program. Following careful evolutionary development, Diamant was successful on its first attempt in 1965. Improved versions were flown over the next ten years.

Diplomat.

  • Category of persons.

DLR Group 1 - 1987.

  • Requirement: German astronauts for flights to the Mir space station and aboard the shuttle.

DLR Group 2 - 1990.

  • Requirement: German astronauts for flights to the Mir space station and aboard the shuttle.

DoD Group 1 - 1979.

  • Requirement: shuttle manned spaceflight engineers to operate military payloads.

DoD Group 2 - 1982.

  • Requirement: shuttle manned spaceflight engineers to operate military payloads.

DoD Group 3 - 1985.

  • Requirement: shuttle manned spaceflight engineers to operate military payloads.

Doorknob.

  • Test vehicle developed by Sandia for aeronomy measurements during atmospheric nuclear tests. One (Doorknob-1) or two surplus Lacrosse (Doorknob-2) missile motors were mated with the payload section.

drone.

  • Category of missiles.

DS.

  • The DS ('Dnepropetrovsk Sputnik') small satellite bus was developed by Yangel's OKB-586 / KB Yuzhnoye in the Ukraine for launch by the same bureau's Kosmos launch vehicles. They were used for a wide range of military and scientific research; component proving tests; and as radar, ASAT, and ABM targets.

DST-100.

  • Isayev N2O4/UDMH rocket engine family.

DST-200.

  • Isayev N2O4/UDMH rocket engine family.

EARL.

  • Vertical takoff / horizontal landing two-stage launch vehicle study from the 1980s.

Early Rocketry.

  • Category of launch vehicles.

Early Russian Ballistic Missiles.

  • The true configuration of the world's first ICBM, the R-7, was revealed only in 1967, ten years after its first test. The Soviet N1 moon rocket was only revealed in 1990, 21 years after its first launch. At the same time, other Russian ballistic missiles were routinely paraded before the cameras of the world press even before they went into service. The extraordinary sensitivity of the Soviet leadership over these Korolev designs may be traced to the fact that they derived from the work of the Groettrup German rocket engineering team.

Early Warning.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Earth.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Earth atmosphere probe.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Earth environment sat.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Earth geodetic sat.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Earth land resource sat.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Earth micrometeoroid sat.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Earth resources radarsat.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Earth rover.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Earth seasat.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Earth seismology sat.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Earth weathersat.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Ecologist.

  • Category of persons.

Economist.

  • Category of persons.

Electric.

  • Category of engines.

Energia.

  • The Energia-Buran Reusable Space System (MKS) began development in 1976 as a Soviet booster that would exceed the capabilities of the US shuttle system. Following extended development, Energia made two successful flights in 1987-1988. But the Soviet Union was crumbling, and the ambitious plans to build an orbiting defense shield, to renew the ozone layer, dispose of nuclear waste, illuminate polar cities, colonize the moon and Mars, were not to be. Funding dried up and the Energia-Buran program completely disappeared from the government's budget after 1993.

Energia Engineer Group 1 - 1966.

  • Requirement: engineers for planned Soyuz and Almaz flights. In 1968-1975 the VVS expected no fewer than 20 Almaz space stations, 50 military 7K-VI missions, 200 Soyuz training spacecraft flights and 400 Soyuz space transport flights.

Energia Engineer Group 1 Supplemental - 1967.

  • Requirement: engineers for lunar flyby and landing missions.

Energia Engineer Group 10 - 1989.

  • Requirement: engineers for missions to the Mir space station.

Energia Engineer Group 11 - 1992.

  • Requirement: engineers for missions to the Mir space station.

Energia Engineer Group 12 - 1994.

  • Requirement: engineers for missions to the ISS space station.

Energia Engineer Group 13 - 1996.

  • Requirement: engineers for missions to the ISS space station.

Energia Engineer Group 14 - 1997.

  • Requirement: engineers for missions to the ISS space station.

Energia Engineer Group 14 Supplemental - 1998.

  • Requirement: engineers for missions to the ISS space station.

Energia Engineer Group 14 Supplemental - 1999.

  • Requirement: engineers for missions to the ISS space station.

Energia Engineer Group 15 - 2003.

  • Requirement: engineers for missions to the ISS space station.

Energia Engineer Group 16 - 2006.

  • Requirement: engineer-cosmonauts for ISS missions.

Energia Engineer Group 17 - 2010.

  • Cosmonaut training group.

Energia Engineer Group 2 - 1967.

  • Requirement: engineers for lunar landing missions.

Energia Engineer Group 3 - 1972.

  • Requirement: engineers for Apollo-Soyuz international space docking mission.

Energia Engineer Group 4 - 1973.

  • Requirement: engineers for Apollo-Soyuz and Soyuz 7K-S missions.

Energia Engineer Group 5 - 1978.

  • Requirement: engineers for Mir space station missions.

Energia Engineer Group 6 - 1980.

  • Requirement: female engineer cosmonauts to visit Salyut and Mir space stations, primarily for propaganda purposes, to upstage American female astronaut flights aboard the shuttle.

Energia Engineer Group 6 Supplemental - 1983.

  • Requirement: all-female crew to visit Mir space stations for propaganda purposes on International Women's Day.

Energia Engineer Group 7 - 1984.

  • Requirement: engineers for Mir missions.

Energia Engineer Group 8 - 1985.

  • Requirement: engineers for Mir missions.

Energia Engineer Group 9 - 1987.

  • Requirement: engineers for Mir missions.

Energia Group Special Selection - 1977.

  • Requirement: general designer to supervise training of spaceplane flight-test cosmonauts

Engineer.

  • Category of persons.

Engineer Commercial Group - 1990.

ESA Group 1 - 1992.

  • Requirement: ESA astronauts for Mir, Shuttle, and ISS missions.

ESA Group 3 - 1998.

  • Requirement: ESA astronauts for Mir, Shuttle, and ISS missions.

ESA Group 3 - 2009.

  • Astronaut training group.

Europa.

  • Europe's first space launcher. The first stage was a British Blue Streak IRBM, the second stage the French Coralie, and the third stage the German Astris. All orbital launch attempts failed due to unreliability of the third stage. The project was cancelled after withdrawal of British support and replaced by the Ariane.

European Rocketplanes.

  • Category of spacecraft.

European Space Stations.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Excalibur.

  • Excalibur was a subscale version of Sea Dragon proposed by Truax Engineering in the 1990's. It featured the same attributes as Sea Dragon: low cost design (pressure fed engines), Lox/Kerosene first stage (combustion chamber pressure 24 atmospheres) and Lox/LH2 second stage (chamber pressure 5 atmospheres).

Exotic.

  • Category of engines.

F-1.

  • Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine family. Largest liquid rocket engine ever developed and flown. Severe combustion stability problems were solved during development and it never failed in flight. First flight 1967.

Falcon.

  • Falcons are a family of two stage, reusable, liquid oxygen and kerosene powered launch vehicles, designed for cost-efficient and reliable transport of satellites and manned spacecraft to low Earth orbit. The Falcon 1 satellite launcher began launches in 2006, with the Falcon 9 - as large as a Saturn I - flying in 2010. The Falcon series was the only successful project among many attempts to privately develop a low cost launch system since the 1960's.

Female.

  • Category of persons.

Female Group - 1962.

  • Requirement: female astronauts for Vostok and Voskhod flights, primarily for propaganda purposes.

Female Group - 1980.

  • Requirement: female cosmonauts to visit Salyut and Mir space stations, primarily for propaganda purposes, to upstage American female astronaut flights aboard the shuttle.

FFAR.

  • Folding-Fin Air Rocket, boosted by 1 x Mk7. Unguided fighter weapon, later used as sounding rocket.

First Stages.

  • Category of engines.

FW-4.

  • Thiokol solid rocket engine family. Used on Advanced Scout, Scout B, Scout D, Scout F, Scout G. First flight 1965.

Gamma ray astronomy satellite.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Gemini.

  • The Gusmobile could have conquered space - faster, better cheaper. An endless number of Gemini derivatives would have performed tasks in earth orbit, and flown around and landed on the moon. Could the US have won the moon and space station races at a fraction of the expense? Browse through the many might-have-been Geminis!

Geologist.

  • Category of persons.

Geophysicist.

  • Category of persons.

Geosynchronous orbit.

  • Category of spacecraft.

German Civilian Rocketry.

  • A German rocket craze seized the country from 1928 to 1933, inspiring a generation of young engineers and scientists that manned spaceflight could be a reality in their lifetime. The Nazi government put an end to this civilian effort, instead putting the engineers to work developing military rockets. After the war, an attempt was made to revive German civilian rocketry, but safety fears resulted in all further work being shut down in 1964.

German Commercial Group - 1990.

  • Requirement: German astronauts for missions aboard Mir, Shuttle, Hermes spaceplane, and ISS.

Goddard.

  • Robert H. Goddard was the father of American rocketry. In a series of rockets flown between World War I and World War II, he solved all of the fundamental problems of guided liquid propellant rockets.

Goldfinch.

  • Royal Ordnance solid rocket engine family. Out of production. Used on Skylark launch vehicle.

Gosling.

  • RO solid rocket engine family.

GR-1.

  • Korolev's entry in the 'Global Rocket' competition, a missile that could place a nuclear warhead in orbit, where it could come in under or behind American anti-ballistic missile defences, and be deorbited with little warning. Cancelled in 1964 in preference to Yangel's R-36-O.

Gravity gradient technology satellite.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Gun-launched.

  • Artillery dominated military ballistics from the earliest use of gunpowder. In 1865 Jules Verne could only realistically consider a cannon for a moon launch in his influential novel. Even after the rocket established its primacy as a method of accessing space, Canadian Gerald Bull began a life-long struggle to use guns for cheap access to space. His successes could not generate funding to continue. Others since then have pursued the technology, convinced it was the only way for low-cost delivery of payloads to orbit.

H-1.

  • Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine family. Saturn l/lB. Designed for booster applications. First flight 1961. Surplus Saturn motors adapted for use in Delta launch vehicle.

H-2.

  • Heavy lift Japanese indigenous launch vehicle. The original H-2 version was cancelled due to high costs and poor reliability and replaced by the substantially redesigned H-2A.

    3 stage vehicle consisted of 2 x H-II SRB + 1 x H-II stage 1 + 1 x H-II stage 2

H-2-0.

  • Nissan solid rocket engine family. Used as strap-on booster on H-2, first stage on J-1.

HATV.

  • Significant Navy program begun in 1946 to develop a single-stage-to-orbit satellite launch vehicle. The Air Force blocked Navy efforts to develop it on a joint basis, while at the same time having no interest in the project itself. Work was abandoned at the end of 1948.

Hawk.

  • American surface-to-air missile and sounding rocket family.

heavy-lift.

  • Category of launch vehicles.

Helios.

  • Study by Kraft Ehricke of a vehicle where the booster stage contains liquid oxygen tanks only and takes the nuclear second stage to the stratosphere. The nuclear sustainer then takes the payload to orbit or escape trajectory.

Hermes.

  • Hermes was a major US Army project to implement German rocket technology after World War II. Development started in 1944 with award to General Electric as the prime contractor. The program was cancelled in 1954 after $ 96.4 million had been spent. Most of this was for nought since the Air Force received the long-range missile assignment in the end.

HG-3.

  • Rocketdyne lox/lh2 rocket engine family. High-performance high-pressure chamber engine developed from J-2. Considered for upgrades to Saturn V launch vehicle upper stages. Technology led to Space Shuttle Main Engines.

High earth orbit.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Hispanic.

  • Category of persons.

Historian.

  • Category of persons.

HM-7.

  • SEP, Ottobrunn lox/lh2 rocket engine family used on Ariane booster upper stages.

Honest John.

  • Unguided single-stage solid-propellant US Army missile developed by Douglas Aircraft. It was later used as the booster stage for a range of sounding rockets, test vehicles, and targets.

Hopi.

  • The Hopi-Dart vehicle consisted of a Hopi III booster as first stage, and an unpowered dart as second stage. A boosted version of the configuration used a Kiva motor as the first stage.

HOTOL.

  • This single-stage-to-orbit winged horizontal takeoff/horizontal landing launch vehicle concept was powered by the unique Rolls-Royce RB545 air / liquid hydrogen / liquid oxygen rocket engine. HOTOL development was conducted from 1982 to 1986 before the British government withdrew funding. It was superseded by the Interim HOTOL design which sought to reduce development cost through use of existing Lox/LH2 engines.

Hound Dog.

  • First American air-launched cruise missile to become operational. Based on Navaho technology.

HVAR.

  • High-Velocity Air Rocket. An unguided fighter weapon, it was later adapted for use by NACA in the early 1950's to boost subscale aerodynamic models to supersonic speed.

Hybrid.

  • Category of engines.

IAI-Arrow-2.

  • IAI solid rocket engine family.

ICBM.

ICBM Base.

  • Category of launch sites.

ICCM.

ICCM Base.

  • Category of launch sites.

IIAE Orion.

  • Family of launch vehicles.

IMBP Group 1 - 1972.

  • Requirement: physicians for Salyut space station missions.

IMBP Group 2 - 1978.

  • Requirement: physicians for Mir space station missions.

IMBP Group 3 - 1980.

  • Requirement: female physicians to visit Salyut and Mir space stations, primarily for propaganda purposes, to upstage American female astronaut flights aboard the shuttle.

IMBP Group 4 - 1985.

  • Requirement: physicians for Mir space station missions.

IMBP Group 5 - 1989.

  • Requirement: physicians for Mir space station missions.

IMBP Group 6 - 2003.

  • Requirement: physicians for ISS space station missions.

In Development.

  • Category of launch vehicles.

Infrared astronomy satellite.

  • Category of spacecraft.

INTA.

  • The Instituto Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial was tasked in 1967 to develop Spain's first sounding rocket. INTA contracted with British Aerojet to provide the necessary technical expertise and designed a rocket built from existing British solid motors. This was followed by versions using Spanish-manufactured versions of British motors. The stop-and-go program extended over nearly 30 years.

Intercosmos Group - 1976.

  • Requirement: pilots from friendly socialist countries to visit Salyut space stations for propaganda purposes on Soyuz ferry-exchange missions.

Intercosmos Group - 1978.

  • Requirement: pilots from friendly socialist countries to visit Salyut space stations for propaganda purposes on Soyuz ferry-exchange missions.

Intercosmos Group - 1979.

  • Requirement: pilots from friendly socialist countries to visit Salyut space stations for propaganda purposes on Soyuz ferry-exchange missions.

International Group - 1980.

  • Requirement: French pilot astronaut to visit Salyut space station for propaganda purposes on Soyuz ferry-exchange missions.

International Group - 1982.

  • Requirement: pilots from India to visit Salyut space station for propaganda purposes on Soyuz ferry-exchange mission.

International Group - 1985.

  • Requirement: pilots from Syria to visit Salyut space station for propaganda purposes on Soyuz ferry-exchange mission.

International Group - 1986.

  • Requirement: French test pilot for missions aboard Hermes, Mir, and Buran.

International Group - 1987.

  • Requirement: pilot from Bulgaria to visit Mir space station for propaganda purposes on Soyuz ferry-exchange mission. This was compensation mission due to failure to deliver Bulgarian cosmonaut on earlier mission to Salyut.

International Group - 1988.

  • Requirement: pilots from Afghanistan to visit Salyut space station for propaganda purposes on Soyuz ferry-exchange mission.

International Group - 1997.

  • Requirement: pilots from Slovakia to visit Mir space station for propaganda purposes on Soyuz ferry-exchange mission.

Ion engine technology satellite.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Ionosphere sat.

  • Category of spacecraft.

IRBM.

IRBM Base.

  • Category of launch sites.

IRCM.

IRCM Base.

  • Category of launch sites.

Iris.

  • Sounding rocket developed by the US Navy, then handed over to NASA. Flown only four times, but then used in unique Hydra-Iris test series.

ISS.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Italian Space Agency Group - 1990.

  • Requirement: Italian astronauts for missions aboard Hermes, Mir, and Shuttle.

J.

  • All-solid rocket motor launch vehicle. Because of the high cost, the original J-1 design was superseded by an alternate J-1 F2 with a different booster stage.

J-2.

  • Rocketdyne lox/lh2 rocket engine family. Used in Saturn IVB stage in Saturn IB and Saturn V, and Saturn II stage in Saturn V. First flight 1966. Sea level versions with reduced expansion ratio proposed for Saturn II first stage use. Upgraded toroidal aerospike versions (J-2T-200K and J-2T-250K) studied for upgrades to Saturn upper stages. Modestly improved J-2S was tested and provided basis for X-33 linear aerospike engine thirty years later. Resurrected again for use in boosting NASA's new Orion manned capsule to orbit. In the event, NASA was unable to resist 'improving' the J-2S, and by early 2007 the engine for the second stage of the Ares 1 Crew Launch Vehicle was the redesignated and substantially different J-2X.

J57.

  • Pratt and Whitney turbojet engine family. Used on B-52 launch aircraft for X-15A and other US rocketplanes.

J79.

  • GE turbojet engine family, used on the F-104, F-4, and B-58 aircraft.

Jaguar.

  • The Jaguar was designed by the RAE Supersonics Department as part of the HRV (Hypersonic Research Vehicle) program. This was a joint project with the Australian Weapons Research Establishment for testing of re-entry vehicles at high speeds. Regardless of the variant, the Rook first stage would propel the upper stages and subscale RV to a high altitude. The upper stages would then fire downward to push the RV into the atmosphere at speeds of up to 5 km/s.

Japanese Commercial Group - 1989.

  • Requirement: Japanese astronauts for commercial mission to Mir.

JATO.

  • Category of engines.

Javelin.

  • The four-stage Javelin rocket was originally known as the Argo D-4 and was developed by the Air Force to replace its Jason rocket with the mission of measuring radiation in space after high-altitude nuclear explosions. It was subsequently used by NASA for a variety of high-altitude near-space scientific experiments.

Jericho.

  • First Israeli ballistic missile. Developed by Dassualt in France as the MD-620. Test series included both one and two stage prototypes. Follow-on versions were said to have differed.

Jewish.

  • Category of persons.

Journalist.

  • Category of persons.

Journalist Group - 1965.

  • Requirement: journalist for planned Voskhod flight.

Journalist Group - 1990.

  • Requirement: journalists to visit Mir space station.

Jupiter.

  • The Jupiter IRBM was developed for the US Army. By the time development was complete, the mission and the missile was assigned to the US Air Force, which had its own nearly identical missile, the Thor. Jupiters were stationed in Turkey and Italy in the early 1960's, but withdrawn in secret exchange for the withdrawal of Soviet R-5 missiles from Cuba. The Jupiter was used as the first stage of the relatively unsuccessful Juno II launch vehicle, and proposed for the Juno III and Juno IV. Jupiter tooling and engines were used to build the much larger Juno V / Saturn I launch vehicle.

K10S.

  • ISAS solid rocket engine family.

K160.

  • ISAS solid rocket engine family.

K250.

  • ISAS solid rocket engine family.

K420.

  • ISAS solid rocket engine family.

Kappa.

  • The Kappa series represented Japan's first large post-war indigenously-developed sounding rockets. They led eventually to the Lambda and Mu solid rocket satellite launchers.

KAUR-1.

  • Family of spacecraft.

KAUR-2.

  • Family of spacecraft.

KAUR-3.

  • Family of spacecraft.

KAUR-4.

  • Family of spacecraft.

Kazakhstan Group - 1991.

  • Requirement: pilots from Kazakhstan to visit Mir space station.

Kazakhstan Group - 2002.

  • Requirement: pilots from Kazakhstan to visit ISS space station.

Khrunichev Engineer Group - 1997.

  • Requirement: engineer for flights to Mir.

Kirgiz Group - 1991.

  • Requirement: pilots from Kyrygyzstan to visit Mir space station for propaganda purposes on Soyuz ferry-exchange mission.

Kirgiz Group - 1996.

  • Requirement: pilots from Kyrygyzstan to visit Mir space station for propaganda purposes on Soyuz ferry-exchange mission.

Kosmoplan.

  • Family of spacecraft.

Kosmos 2.

  • In 1960 the Soviet government decreed development of a lightweight launch vehicle for launch of payloads not requiring R-7 family of boosters. A modification of the R-12 IRBM was selected as the first stage; a new high-performance second stage was developed using a unique Lox/UDMH propellant combination. After two failures, the first successful flight was on March 16, 1962.

Kosmos 3.

  • In 1961 Isayev and Reshetnev developed the Voskhod space launch system on the basis of the R-14 IRBM. The initial version of the two stage rocket was designated Kosmos-1. The first 'Voskhod' launch complex was at Baikonur, a modification of one of the pads at the R-16 ICBM launch complex 41.

KSLV.

  • South Korean launch vehicle family. Originally they were to be of completely indigenous design; but in 2005 it was announced that they would use the (in-development, unflown) Russian Angara booster module as the basis. The program, like that of the Angara, was subject to continuous funding shortages and schedule delays. First launch 2009.08.25.

KSR.

  • South Korean indigenous sounding and test rocket family, using solid rocket motors and a test vehicle with a liquid oxygen/kerosene motor. Further development of the latter into the KSLV satellite launch vehicle was abandoned in 2005 in favor of licensed Russian technology.

KT.

  • Family of all solid-propellant Chinese launch vehicles, using the DF-31 ICBM as the basis with new upper or lower stages to achieve a range of payload performances. Following two unsuccessful launches in 2002-2003, the project may have been abandoned.

KTDU-417.

  • Isayev Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine family. for Luna 15-24 descent stage.

KTDU-425.

  • Isayev N2O4/UDMH rocket engine family. Mars 2 and 3 maneuver engine

Kvant.

  • The Kvant was the Soviet third generation light launch vehicle planned to replace the Kosmos and Tsyklon series. Unlike the vehicles it was to replace, the booster used non-toxic 'environmentally friendly' liquid oxygen/kerosene propellants. Although such a light launch vehicle was on Space Forces wish lists since 1972, full scale development was again deferred due to the crash effort on Soviet 'star wars' in the second half of the 1980's. RKK Energia marketed the vehicle design from 1994 to 2001, but could find no source for development funds.

Lagrangian point.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Lambda.

  • All solid-propellant vehicle, Japan's first satellite launcher. The L-4S project simulated the procedures and demonstrated the capabilities required for orbital satellite launch essential to the follow-on Mu project.

Lance.

  • American short range ballistic missile family.

Landsat.

  • Category of spacecraft.

LAPSTAR.

  • WRE solid rocket engine family.

Laser.

  • Category of spacecraft.

LCLV.

  • Various independently-funded launch vehicles have been advocated, designed, and even developed over the years. A lot of these are attempts to build low-cost launch vehicles using simpler technology. Often such projects begin based on a low cost liquid fuel technology but end up just trying to sell various combinations of Castor solid fuel stages. These enterprises often discover there's more to coming up with a reliable launch vehicle than slashing together a bunch of 'off the shelf' rocket motors and lighting the fuse.... On the other hand, if there is ever a breakthrough in less expensive access to space, it will come through one of these entrepreneurial schemes...

LE-5.

  • Mitsubishi lox/lh2 rocket engine family. Used on H-1 launch vehicle. First flight 1986. Simplified, lower cost version, the LE-5A used an expander bleed cycle turbopump.

LE-7.

  • Mitsubishi lox/lh2 rocket engine family for H-2 upper stages.

Lenticular Vehicles.

  • For a brief period in 1959-1964, NASA and the US Air Force actively considered launching manned flying saucers into space. Although very much in tune with UFO mania and science fiction films of the times, the concept lost out to other aerodynamic concepts.

Little Joe.

  • Little Joe was used to test the Mercury capsule launch escape system. The booster was designed by NASA Langley using existing components. Six to eight solid rocket motors were mounted in an aerodynamic finned fairing built by North American.

Little Joe II.

  • Little Joe II was an enlarged version of the Little Joe concept used in the Mercury program, used to test the Apollo capsule launch escape system. The vehicle was designed by General Dynamics. Six to nine solid rocket motors were mounted in an aerodynamic finned fairing.

Logistics spacecraft.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Loki.

  • American unguided solid-propellant barrage anti-aircraft rocket adapted to use as a meteorological sounding rocket.

low cost.

  • Category of launch vehicles.

Low earth orbit.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Lox/Hydrocarbon.

  • Category of engines.

Lox/LH2.

  • Category of engines.

Lox/UDMH.

  • Category of engines.

LR101.

  • Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine family. Verniers for Thor and Delta boosters.

LR105.

  • Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine family. Atlas Sustainer.

LR13.

  • Aerojet Nitric acid/Amine rocket engine family. B-29 ATO. Development begun June 1948. Ceramic chamber and nozzle.

LR45.

  • Aerojet Nitric acid/Kerosene rocket engine family. B-47C ATO. Development begun August 1948.

LR64.

  • Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine family. AQM-37. Target System Sustainer.

LR79.

  • Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine family. Designed for booster applications. Boosted Thor and early model Delta rockets.

LR83.

  • Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine family for the booster of the Navaho intercontinental cruise missile. The engine was fully developed before Navaho G-38 cancellation.

LR87.

  • Aerojet N2O4/Aerozine-50 rocket engine family for the Titan booster stage. The Aerojet LR87 was the only engine known in the world that was operated (with modifications) using all three major propellant combinations: kerosene RP-1 and liquid oxygen; storable hydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide; and liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen.

LR89.

  • Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine family. Booster engine for Atlas rockets.

LR91.

  • Aerojet N2O4/Aerozine-50 rocket engine family. Titan Stage 2. Scaled down version of stage 1 engine featuring fixed single chamber.

LS-C.

  • Mitsubishi solid rocket engine family.

Luna.

  • Family of missiles.

Luna E-1.

  • Family of spacecraft.

Luna E-3.

  • Family of spacecraft.

Luna E-6.

  • Family of spacecraft.

Luna Ye-8.

  • Family of spacecraft.

Luna-M.

  • Family of missiles.

Lunar.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Lunar 0rbit.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Lunar base.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Lunar Bases.

  • The Lunar Base never seemed to be a high priority to space visionaries, who were mainly interested in getting on to Mars. It was usually seen as a proving ground for Mars vehicle technology, or as a place to mine propellant for use in a larger space infrastructure.

Lunar flyby.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Lunar flyer.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Lunar Flyers.

  • Lunar flyers would use rocket power to get crew or cargo quickly from one point on the lunar surface to another. The larger versions could act as rescue vehicles to get crew members to lunar orbit for pick-up and return to earth. Their horrendous fuel requirements meant that they were mainly considered for one-use rescue missions - for example to return a crew from a disabled lunar rover, beyond walking distance back to their lander. Some Apollo variants proposed using leftover propellant from the Lunar Module descent stage to fuel such flyers.

Lunar habitat.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Lunar Habitats.

  • Lunar habitats were usually for early lunar exploration or as modules for fixed-location base buildup. Mobile habitats were the more logical solution for extended exploration (see Lunar Rovers).

Lunar impacter.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Lunar lander.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Lunar lander test vehicle.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Lunar Landers.

  • Lunar lander design started with the British Interplanetary Society's concept of 1939, followed by Von Braun's 3964 tonne monster of 1953. It then settled down to more reasonably-sized variants. Landers came in three main types: two stage versions, with the first stage being a lunar crasher that would brake the spacecraft until just above the lunar surface, then separate, allowing the second stage to land on the surface; two stage versions consisting of a descent stage that went all the way to the surface, and an ascent stage that would take the crew from the surface to lunar orbit or on an earth-return trajectory; and single stage versions, using liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen propellants.

Lunar logistics spacecraft.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Lunar orbiter.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Lunar Orbiters.

  • Manned lunar orbiters and orbiting stations were rarely designed for this purpose alone, but usually used in a lunar-orbit rendezvous lunar landing scenario together with a separate lunar lander. They were more powerful than circumlunar manned spacecraft in that they required substantial propellant to brake into and get out of lunar orbit.

Lunar rover.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Lunar Rovers.

  • Lunar rovers were studied in a dizzying variety of sizes and shapes by NASA in the 1960's - including crawlers, trains, hoppers, and even worms. Two rovers designed for manned use actually traveled the lunar surface in the 1970's - the American two-man Lunar Rover, and the Soviet Lunokhod, which traveled the moon in robotic mode but was originally designed as emergency cosmonaut transportation.

Lunar surface.

  • Category of spacecraft.

LV.

  • Family of launch vehicles.

M-100.

  • Two-stage, solid propellant, fin stabilized, unguided Russian sounding rocket, fired in greater numbers than any other. At least 6,640 of all models were fired to the edge of space before the vehicle was discontinued in 1990. 4,908 of the basic M-100 model were fired from 1957-07-11 to 1983-09-28.

M-20.

  • Nissan solid rocket engine family.

M-3.

  • Nissan solid rocket engine family.

M55.

  • Thiokol solid rocket engine family.

Mace.

  • Intermediate range cruise missile family.

Magnetosphere sat.

  • Category of spacecraft.

MAKS.

  • The MAKS spaceplane was the ultimate development of the air-launched spaceplane studies conducted by NPO Molniya. The draft project for MAKS was completed in 1988. But development MAKS was cancelled in 1991. Since it was expected that MAKS could reduce the cost of transport to earth orbit by a factor of ten, it was hoped in the 1990's that development funding could be found. However this did not materialise.

Manager.

  • Category of persons.

Man-In-Space-Soonest.

  • The beginning of the Air Force's Man-In-Space-Soonest program has been traced back to a staff meeting of General Thomas S Power, Commander of the Air Research and Development Command (ARDC) in Baltimore on 15 February 1956. Power wanted studies to begin on manned space vehicles that would follow the X-15 rocketplane. These were to include winged and ballistic approaches - the ballistic rocket was seen as being a militarily useful intercontinental troop and cargo vehicle.

Man-In-Space-Soonest - 1958.

  • To provide pilots for the USAF Project 7969 MISS "Man-In-Space-Soonest" manned spacecraft. On 25 June 1958 the Air Force completed a preliminary astronaut selection for the project. The list was prioritized according to the weight of the pilot due to the low payload available. The 150-175 pound group consisted of test pilots Bob or Robert Walker, Scott Crossfield, Neil Armstrong, and Robert Rushworth. In the 175 to 200 pound group were William Bridgeman, Alvin White, Iven Kincheloe, Robert White, and Jack McKay. It was the first astronaut selection in history.

Manned.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Manned balloon.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Manned Circumlunar.

  • Boosting a manned spacecraft on a loop around the moon, without entering lunar orbit, allows a trip to be made near the moon with a total low earth orbit mass of as little as 20 tonnes. This was attractive during the space race as a manned mission that could be accomplished early with limited booster power. Gemini, Apollo, and Soyuz were all supposed to have made circumlunar flights. Only Soyuz reached the circumlunar flight-test stage under the L1 program. Any L1 manned missions were cancelled after the Americans reached lunar orbit with Apollo 8. The idea was resurrected in 2005 when a $100 million commercial flight around the moon was proposed, again using Soyuz.

Manned lunar base.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Manned lunar flyer.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Manned lunar habitat.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Manned lunar lander test vehicle.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Manned Mars expedition.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Manned Mars flyby.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Manned space station.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Manned spacecraft.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Manned spacecraft module.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Manned spaceflight.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Manufacturer.

  • Manufacturers of space-related hardware.

MAP Group 1 - 1981.

  • Requirement: test pilots for Buran spaceplane

MAP Group 2 - 1983.

  • Requirement: test pilots for Buran spaceplane

MAP Group 3 - 1984.

  • Requirement: test pilots for Buran spaceplane

MAP Group 4 - 1985.

  • Requirement: test pilots for Buran spaceplane

MAP Group 5 - 1989.

  • Requirement: test pilots for Buran spaceplane

Mars.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Mars expedition.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Mars Expeditions.

  • Since Wernher von Braun first sketched out his Marsprojekt in 1946, a succession of designs and mission profiles were seriously studied in the United States and the Soviet Union. By the late 1960's Von Braun had come to favour nuclear thermal rocket powered expeditions, while his Soviet counterpart Korolev decided that nuclear electric propulsion was the way to go. All such work stopped in both countries in the 1970's, after the cancellation of the Apollo program in the United States and the N1 booster in the Soviet Union.

Mars Flyby.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Mars flyby probe.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Mars lander.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Mars orbit.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Mars orbiter.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Mars rover.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Martlet.

  • In 1962-1967 Canada's Gerard Bull led development of the Martlet system for gun-launched access to space. The program was cancelled before the objective of gun launch to orbit was attained.

Matador.

  • Martin surface-to-surface cruise missile family.

Materials.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Materials science satellite.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Materials scientist.

  • Category of persons.

Mayfly.

  • WRE solid rocket engine family.

MB.

  • Family of launch vehicles.

Medium earth orbit.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Mercury.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Mercury 13 - 1961.

  • Group of 13 female pilots who passed astronaut physical testing in 1961 to prove that women were also qualified for spaceflight. NASA never considered them, maintaining that astronauts had to be qualified test pilots (all of whom were white males). Nickname: The Mercury Thirteen

Mercury probe.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Merlin.

  • SpaceX Lox/Kerosene rocket engine family. For the Falcon booster family.

Meteor.

  • Family of Polish sounding rockets developed by the Polish Aviation Institute for the Polish Hydro-Meteorological institute beginning in 1962.

Meteor LV.

  • Category of rockets.

Meteorologist.

  • Category of persons.

Micon.

  • Swiss surface-to-air missile. The dual-thrust (45 kN then 22 kN) solid propellant motor providing a total impulse of 900 kN-sec.

Military.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Military anti-satellite system.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Military communications sat.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Military early warning sat.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Military naval signals reconnsat.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Military orbital bombardment sat.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Military satellite.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Military Spaceflight Engineer Astronaut.

  • Astronauts trained for military spaceflight but not to pilot spacecraft.

Military store-dump comsat.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Military strategic defense sat.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Military surveillance radarsat.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Military surveillance sat.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Military target sat.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Military technology sat.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Minotaur.

  • Minotaur was developed for the US Air Force's Orbital/Suborbital Program (OSP) as a low-cost, four-stage Space Launch Vehicle (SLV) using a combination of government-supplied surplus Minuteman II ICBM motors and proven Orbital space launch technologies. Proposed growth versions would use surplus Peacekeeper rocket stages.

Minuteman.

  • Mainstay of the US deterrent. 1,000 Minuteman silos were built in the early 1960's, and the missile was to remain in service to the mid-21st Century. As versions were retired and updated, they provided a plentiful source of surplus rocket motors for other projects.

missile.

  • Guided self-propelled military weapon (as opposed to rocket, an unguided self-propelled weapon).

Mission Specialist Astronaut.

  • Astronauts trained for spaceflight but not to pilot spacecraft.

MLRS.

  • Multiple Launch Rocket System. Ballistic US Army assault weapon against fortifications and armor.

Molniya orbit.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Monica.

  • French low-cost, three-stage, solid-propellant sounding rocket developed in France in the 1950's in support of the International Geophysical Year.

Monopropellant.

  • Category of engines.

Moon.

  • Category of spacecraft.

MR.

  • Russian solid rocket engine family.

MR-12.

  • The MR-12 sounding rocket was developed by the Soviet Union as a modern replacement for the MR-1 Meteo. It was a single stage solid rocket with a 170 kg payload. Payload section 1.55 m long, 0.445 m in diameter.

MR-UR-100.

  • The Yangel MR-UR-100 was designed as a replacement for Chelomei's UR-100 at the end of its 10 year storage life. Although it could be installed in the same silos, it was 50% heavier. The competing design of Chelomei, the UR-100N, was also put into production when the Soviet hierarchy deadlocked and could not pick one design over the other.

MSBS.

  • Family of French submarine-launched ballistic missiles.

MT-135.

  • The MT-135 was a small single-stage sounding rocket designed to collect data on the middle atmosphere, such as ozone layer depletion.

Mu.

  • The Japanese Mu launcher series provided a flexible all-solid propellant launch vehicle for access to space. It was the first Japanese launch vehicle designed from the start as an orbital launch vehicle.

M-V.

  • All-solid Japanese satellite launch vehicle.

N1.

  • The N1 launch vehicle, developed by Russia in the 1960's, was to be the Soviet Union's counterpart to the Saturn V. The largest of a family of launch vehicles that were to replace the ICBM-derived launchers then in use, the N series was to launch Soviet cosmonauts to the moon, Mars, and huge space stations into orbit. In comparison to Saturn, the project was started late, starved of funds and priority, and dogged by political and technical struggles between the chief designers Korolev, Glushko, and Chelomei. The end result was four launch failures and cancellation of the project five years after Apollo landed on the moon. Not only did a Soviet cosmonaut never land on the moon, but the Soviet Union even denied that the huge project ever existed.

NASA Group 1 - 1959.

  • Requirement: six pilots for the single-crew Mercury manned spacecraft. Originally a wide pool of candidates was going to be considered, but in December 1958 President Eisenhower ruled that military test pilots would form the candidate pool. Nickname: The Original Seven

NASA Group 10 - 1984.

  • Requirement: pilot, engineer, and scientist astronauts for space shuttle flights. Nickname: The Maggots. Named by Bill Shepherd, who dubbed them in their earliest group training in aircraft survival school, a term familiar to graduates of USMC boot camp.

NASA Group 11 - 1985.

  • Requirement: pilot, engineer, and scientist astronauts for space shuttle flights.

NASA Group 12 - 1987.

  • Requirement: pilot, engineer, and scientist astronauts for space shuttle flights. Nickname: The Gaffers (acronym for 'George Abbey Final Fifteen' - the last group selected with George Abbey as Director of Flight Crew Operations). The class motto: 'What's the rush?' since there was expected to be along wait for flights after the Challenger disaste

NASA Group 13 - 1990.

  • Requirement: pilot, engineer, and scientist astronauts for space shuttle flights. Nickname: The Hairballs. As the 13th astronaut group, the 'unlucky' theme was discussed in designing an emblem for the group. A black cat was used on an early patch design rejected by NASA. This reminded some of hairballs and the group members adopted this as a nickname.

NASA Group 14 - 1992.

  • Requirement: pilot, engineer, and scientist astronauts for space shuttle flights. Nickname: The Hogs.

NASA Group 15 - 1995.

  • Requirement: pilot, engineer, and scientist astronauts for space shuttle flights. Nickname: The Flying Escargot. Originally dubbed the 'snails' by the Hogs, because they were supposed to be the class of 1994, but the announcement was delayed a year;. They renamed themselves with the better-sounding French equivalent.

NASA Group 16 - 1996.

  • Requirement: pilot, engineer, and scientist astronauts for space shuttle flights. Nickname: The Sardines (named because that's how packed they were; at 44 this was the largest ASCAN class of all time)

NASA Group 17 - 1998.

  • Requirement: pilot, engineer, and scientist astronauts for space shuttle flights. Nickname: The Penguins. Originally called the Dodos by the Sardines, after an extinct flightless bird; they renamed themselves after a flightless bird that eats fish...

NASA Group 18 - 2000.

  • Requirement: pilot, engineer, and scientist astronauts for space shuttle flights. Nickname: The Bugs.

NASA Group 19 - 2004.

  • Requirement: pilot and mission specialists for post-ISS spaceflights to the moon and beyond

NASA Group 2 - 1962.

  • Requirement: pilots for the Gemini program and early Apollo missions. Nickname: The Next Nine

NASA Group 20 - 2009.

  • Requirement: pilot and mission specialists for post-ISS spaceflights to the moon and beyond. Nickname: The Chumps (unexplained; originally the Chimps, but perhaps the Chumps based on the unlikelihood they will ever fly in space).

NASA Group 3 - 1963.

  • Requirement: crew members for planned Apollo missions (then planned as 4 Saturn I missions in 1965, 2-4 Saturn IB missions in 1966, 6 Saturn V missions from 1967). Nickname: The Fourteen.

NASA Group 4 - 1965.

  • Requirement: scientist-astronauts for Apollo lunar landing and Apollo applications earth-orbit space station missions. Nickname: The Scientists.

NASA Group 5 - 1966.

  • Requirement: pilot-astronauts for the Apollo Applications Program (then planned as 10 lunar landings after Apollo 11 and 30 Apollo flights to earth-orbit space stations). Nickname: The Original Nineteen

NASA Group 6 - 1967.

  • Requirement: additional scientist-astronauts for Apollo lunar landing and earth-orbit space station missions. Nickname: The Excess Eleven.

NASA Group 7 - 1969.

  • NASA was forced to take on seven pilot-astronauts from the cancelled USAF MOL military space station program. All of these men would have to wait to the shuttle era for space missions, but they all would eventually fly.

NASA Group 8 - 1978.

  • Requirement: pilot, engineer, and scientist astronauts for space shuttle flights. Recruit women and minorities to introduce diversity into the astronaut corps. Nickname: TFNG - Thirty-Five New Guys, also an obscene military phrase.

NASA Group 9 - 1980.

  • Requirement: pilot, engineer, and scientist astronauts for space shuttle flights. Nickname: 19+80 - The two European astronauts in the group were not considered by the Americans to be part of the 'official' group. This led to a scene at graduation.

NASDA Group - 1985.

  • Requirement: Japanese astronauts for flights aboard Shuttle, ISS.

NASDA Group 2 - 1992.

  • Requirement: Japanese astronauts for flights aboard Shuttle, ISS.

NASDA Group 3 - 1999.

  • Requirement: Japanese astronauts for flights aboard Shuttle, ISS.

Navaho.

  • The Navaho intercontinental cruise missile project was begun just after World War II, at a time when the US Army Air Force considered ballistic missiles to be technically impractical. The Navaho required a large liquid propellant rocket engine to get its Mach 3 ramjet up to ignition speed. This engine, derived with German assistance from that of the V-2, provided the basis for the rockets that would later take Americans into space.

Naval surveillance radarsat.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Navigation.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Navigation technology satellite.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Navigator.

  • Category of persons.

Navsat.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Nerva.

  • DoE nuclear/lh2 rocket engine family family developed in the 1960's up to flight article test before cancellation.

New Generation Crewed.

  • The world is facing a minimum five year period, beginning in 2011, when the venerable Russian Soyuz spacecraft will provide the only means of ferrying crews to the International Space Station. America's new Orion spacecraft, beset by delays, is unlikely to be arriving at the ISS until 2018 at the earliest - which was NASA's original date for retirement of the ISS. China has its slow-motion Shenzhou manned program, but so far they have shown no interest in involvement in the ISS program, or in sharing their hard-won independent space technology with outsiders.

New Space Tourism.

  • With governmental manned space programs flagging, it seemed by the 21st Century that only civilian investors, building systems for toursim, might keep manned spaceflight alive...

Nike.

  • Single stage vehicles consisting first of just the Nike booster were initially fired in the course of development of the Nike-Ajax surface-to-air missile. Later it was used occasionally as a sounding rocket, but much more often as the boost stage of a multi-stage sounding rocket.

Nike Hercules.

  • Two stage surface-to-air missile, replaced Nike Ajax, operational with the US and allied armies. Rocket stages later used in sounding rockets.

Nike Zeus.

  • First anti-ballistic missile tested by US. Protoypes were deployed operationally from the mid-Pacific test base as nuclear-tipped ASAT missiles. Follow-on Spartan system deployed very briefly in 1970's.

NK-15.

  • Kuznetsov Lox/Kerosene rocket engine family developed for the N-1 launcher.

NK-21.

  • Kuznetsov Lox/Kerosene rocket engine family for the N-1 stage 3 application.

NK-33.

  • Kuznetsov Lox/Kerosene rocket engine family. Never flown and mothballed after the cancellation of the N1.

NK-9.

  • Kuznetsov Lox/Kerosene rocket engine family. Reached phase of stand testing in 1965, but then RD-111 selected. Later planned for 1st Stage of GR-1, but that rocket also cancelled.

NLS.

  • New (or National) Launch System (NLS) joint NASA/USAF studies began in 1989, following the demise of the ALS. They proposed development of a family of launch vehicles using a new STME engine to replace the existing ‘high cost' boosters derived from 1950's missile designs. The $12 billion nonrecurring cost was nearly that estimated for ALS, and this cost could not be recouped at projected launch rates. NLS was terminated in 1991.

Nova.

  • Nova was NASA's ultimate launch vehicle, studied intently from 1959 to 1962. Originally conceived to allow a direct manned landing on the moon, in its final iteration it was to put a million-pound payload into low earth orbit to support manned Mars expeditions. It was abandoned in NASA advanced mission planning thereafter in favor of growth versions of the Saturn V.

nuclear.

  • Category of engines.

Nuclear detection surveillance satellite.

  • Category of spacecraft.

nuclear pulse.

  • Category of engines.

nuclear-powered.

  • Category of engines.

Oceanographer.

  • Category of persons.

Officer.

  • Category of persons.

OOST.

  • Bono's earliest design for an expendable single-stage-to-orbit LH2/Lox booster. The baseline version used conventional engines.

orbital.

  • Category of launch vehicles.

Orbital Launch Site.

  • Category of launch sites.

orbital launch vehicle.

  • Category of launch vehicles.

Orel.

  • In the late 1990's the Russian space industry undertook the Orel programme to evaluate technology for future launch vehicles. The goals included evaluation of possible concepts for a future Russian launcher, reusable launch vehicle key technology research and analysis of "X-vehicle" flight demonstrators for technology validation.

Orion.

  • Nuclear-pulse drive launch vehicle seriously developed by General Atomics in the United States from 1955-1965. The design allowed vast payloads of hundreds of tons to be hurled to the planets. By 1958 the Orion team saw themselves in direct competition with Von Braun's chemical rockets. They hoped to a land a huge manned expedition on Mars by 1964 and tour the moons of Saturn by 1970. However politically NASA would not argue for the exception to the 1963 Nuclear Test Ban Treaty necessary to allow firing of nuclear explosions in space.

OS.

  • Family of spacecraft.

Outer planets.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Outer planets probe.

  • Category of spacecraft.

pad-launched.

  • Category of missiles.

Passive communications satellite.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Patriot.

  • Standard Army surface-to-air missile. Later versions had anti-tactical missile capability.

Payload Specialist.

  • Requirement: technicians to operate specific payloads on shuttle missions.

Payload Specialist Astronaut.

  • Astronauts trained for spaceflight but for only support of a specific payload on a single space mission.

Pegasus.

  • Privately-funded, air-launched winged light satellite launcher.

Pegasus-1.

  • Hercules solid rocket engine family. Used on Pegasus, Taurus.

Pegasus-2.

  • Hercules solid rocket engine family. Used on Pegasus, Taurus.

Pershing.

  • US Army tactical missile, the first and only solid-fueled Medium Range Ballistic Missile deployed by the U.S. Army. It was in service for almost 30 years until all nuclear MRBMs were phased out and destroyed according to arms reduction treaties.

Petrel.

  • Petrel was a larger sounding rocket built by Bristol Aerojet using the same tube-launch technique as Skua. A total of 240 Petrels were launched from 1967-1982 from many sites around the world.

Phantom Cosmonaut.

  • Over the years the Western press named a number of cosmonauts that were never acknowledged by the Soviet Union. Most were said to have died in space.

Photointerpreter.

  • Category of persons.

Physician.

  • Category of persons.

Physicist.

  • Category of persons.

Physiologist.

  • Category of persons.

Pilot.

  • Category of persons.

Pioner.

  • Mobile solid propellant intermediate range multiple warhead ballistic missile. Seen as an enormous threat to NATO. 405 launchers deployed by 1987 when the missile was banned by the INF Treaty.

Planetary.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Planned manned spaceflight.

  • Category of spaceflights.

Polar orbit.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Polaris.

  • Probably the most technically innovative program in history, Polaris integrated solid-propellant, inertially-guided intermediate range ballistic missiles with nuclear submarines that could remain submerged for months at a time. All of these were new technologies, but the first ship was underway only three years after go-ahead.

Politician.

  • Category of persons.

Pre-Sputnik Designs.

  • Category of launch vehicles.

Prithvi.

  • Single stage vehicle. First units deployed in 1995.

Professor.

  • Category of persons.

Project Pilot.

  • The US Navy's satellite launcher project competed with the Army's Jupiter-C, the Air Force Atlas, and the civilian Vanguard. Air-launched satellite launch vehicle, and anti-satellite versions, tested by the US Navy shortly after Sputnik. One may have achieved orbit.

Propulsion expert.

  • Category of persons.

Proteus.

  • Family of spacecraft.

Proton.

  • The Proton launch vehicle has been the medium-lift workhorse of the Soviet and Russian space programs for over forty years. Although constantly criticized within Russia for its use of toxic and ecologically-damaging storable liquid propellants, it has out-lasted all challengers, and no replacement is in sight.

PSLV.

  • Indian third-generation launch vehicle, large enough to carry polar-orbiting earth resources satellites.

Quick Reach.

  • Family of low-cost space boosters under development by AirLaunch LLC under DARPA and NASA contracts in 2007-2008.

R-1.

  • Stalin did not decide to proceed with Soviet production of this copy of the German V-2 until 1948. Despite the threatening supervision of the program by Stalin's secret police chief, Beria, and the assistance of German rocket engineers, it took eight years for the German technology to be absorbed and the missile to be put into service. It was almost immediately superseded by later designs, but the effort laid the groundwork for the Soviet rocket industry. Surplus R-1's were converted to use as a sounding rockets for military and scientific research missions.

R-103.

  • Post-war Russian version of German Taifun anti-aircraft barrage rocket. Developed and tested in 1947-1951 but abandoned in favour of the R-110.

R-11.

  • First Russian ballistic missile using storable propellants, developed from the German Wasserfall SAM by Korolev's OKB. The design was then spun off to the Makeyev OKB for development of Army (R-17 Scud) and SLBM (R-11FMA) derivatives.

R-110.

  • Larger caliber Russian version of the German Taifun anti-aircraft barrage rocket. Developed and tested in 1948-1956 and reached the initial production stage, but cancelled due to the inability to produce an economical rocket with the necessary consistent range accuracy for the barrage role.

R-16.

  • The Soviet Union's first practical ICBM, a two stage vehicle using storable propellants. Development began in 1956 and the missile was in service from 1962 to 1974. Peak deployment consisted of 186 launchers, about a third of them in missile silos, the rest in fixed 'soft' installations.

R-17.

  • The final refinement of the R-11 design, the R-17, was exported widely and became infamous around the world by its ASCC reporting name - "Scud". It was perhaps the most famous ballistic missile of the post-war period due to its use in the Iran-Iraq 'War of the Cities' and the Gulf War. This was the definitive production version of what was essentially a storable-propellant rocket with the performance of the V-2.

R-2.

  • The Soviet R-2 ballistic missile was developed in 1947-1953, nearly in parallel with the R-1 from which it derived. It incorporated many detailed improvements, had double the range of the R-1 and V-2, and was equipped with a deadly radiological warhead. The ethyl alcohol used in the V-2 and R-1 was replaced by methyl alcohol in the R-2, eliminating the problem of the launch troops drinking up the rocket fuel. Versions of the R-2 for suborbital manned flight were studied by Korolev in 1956-1958, but it was decided instead to move directly to orbital flights of the Vostok. However some equipment tested on the R-2 found its way onto canine flights of Sputnik and Vostok. The R-2 design was transferred to China in 1957 to 1961, providing the technical basis of the Chinese rocket industry.

R-21.

  • First flight 1962. NATO code Serb may apply to SS-N-6 instead. First subsurface launched SLBM (development began at OKB- 586 and transferred to SKB-385).

R-27.

  • First flight 1967. Correct NATO code may be Serb; Sawfly was competitor. Development completed 1968.

R-29.

  • First intercontinental submarine-launched ballistic missile (range 7800 km). First flight 1969. Development completed 1973. The variants of this missile were given three different DoD designations over the years (SS-N-8, SS-N-18, and SS-N-23).

R-36M.

  • The super-heavy Ukrainian R-36M ICBM replaced the R-36 in 288 existing silos and was additionally installed in 20 new super-hardened silos. The fall of the Soviet Union ended production and the need for replacement. Nevertheless they remained in Russian service into the 21st Century, some being modified for use as space launchers.

R-39.

  • SLBM developed for use on Typhoon subs.

R-40.

  • Marquardt N2O4/MMH rocket engine. Thruster developed for Shuttle Orbiter orbit control. The orbiter had 38 long scarf, short scarf, or no scarf configurations, depending on the location.

R-5.

  • The R-5 was the first Soviet missile to be armed with a nuclear warhead, and the first for which the new southern facility at Dnepropetrovsk took over full design and production responsibility. The R-5 could deliver a 1425 kg warhead over a range of 1200 km, doubling the performance of the R-2. It was also the end of the road in being the ultimate extrapolation of German V-2 technology. Later missiles of both Yangel and Korolev would use other propellants and engine designs.

R-56.

  • The R-56 was Yangel's ultimate superbooster design. Trade studies begun in 1962 resulted in a conventional tandem stage design capable of being transported on the Soviet canal system from the factory to the launch site, while still placing 40 metric tons into low earth orbit. However various Soviet government factions favored the much larger (and less practical) Korolev N1 or Chelomei UR-700 designs. Yangel made one last attempt to convince the government to sponsor a common approach to the lunar program, with different design bureaus concentrating on just one part of the mission, as the American's were doing. But his practical solutions obtained no traction, and further work on the R-56 was abandoned.

R-7.

  • The world's first ICBM became the most often used and most reliable launch vehicle in history. The original core+four strap-on booster missile had a small third stage added to produce the Vostok launch vehicle, with a payload of 5 metric tons. Addition of a larger third stage produced the Voskhod/Soyuz vehicle, with a payload over 6 metric tons. Using this with a fourth stage, the resulting Molniya booster placed communications satellites and early lunar and planetary probes in higher energy trajectories. By the year 2000 over 1,628 had been launched with an unmatched success rate of 97.5% for production models. Improved models providing commercial launch services for international customers entered service in the new millenium, and a new launch pad at Kourou was to be inaugurated in 2011. It appeared that the R-7 could easily still be in service 70 years after its first launch.

R-9.

  • ICBM developed by Korolev OKB using liquid oxygen/kerosene propellants. The Soviet military favoured storable propellants as advocated by Glushko and implemented by Yangel and Chelomei. Development of the R-9 was protracted and it was deployed in only very limited numbers between 1964 and 1974.

Radio astronomy satellite.

  • Category of spacecraft.

RAM.

  • Family of launch vehicles.

Ramjet.

  • Category of engines.

Raven.

  • RO solid rocket engine family.

RD-0110.

  • Kosberg Lox/Kerosene rocket engine family. Soyuz 11A511, Molniya-M 8K78M. Precursor RD-0107 used in 11A57 Voskhod stage 2.

RD-0120.

  • Kosberg lox/lh2 rocket engine family. Energia core stage. First operational Russian cryogenic engine system, built to the same overall performance specifications as America's SSME, but using superior Russian technology.

RD-0124.

  • Kosberg Lox/Kerosene rocket engine family. Engine to succeed RD-0110 in second stage of Soyuz. Proposed for small launcher Kvant-1 by RKK Energia for stage 1 steering engine. Also proposed by RKK Energia in initial studies in 1993 for Angara upper stage.

RD-0126.

  • Kosberg lox/lh2 rocket engine family. Space tugs or upper stage for Onega or Yastreb versions of Soyuz.

RD-0132.

  • Kosberg lox/lh2 rocket engine family. Concept for a cryogenic engine for upper stages.

RD-0143.

  • Kosberg Lox/LNG rocket engine family. Vozdushnyy Start stage 2.

RD-0210.

  • Kosberg N2O4/UDMH rocket engine family. Cluster of four similar engines used in second stage of Proton - one providing tank pressurization (8D412K/RD-0211) and three (8D411K/RD-0210).

RD-0229.

  • Kosberg N2O4/UDMH rocket engine family. R-36M / Ikar launch vehicle.

RD-0234.

  • Kosberg N2O4/UDMH rocket engine family. UR-100N.

RD-0242.

  • Kosberg N2O4/UDMH rocket engine family. Sea-based missile booster stages developed 1977-83.

RD-0244.

  • Kosberg N2O4/UDMH rocket engine family. R-29RM stage 1. Submerged in propellant tank.

RD-0245.

  • Kosberg N2O4/UDMH rocket engine family. R-29RM stage 1 vernier.

RD-0256.

  • Kosberg N2O4/UDMH rocket engine family. R-36M2 stage 2.

RD-1.

  • Glushko Nitric acid/Kerosene rocket engine family. Take-off acelleration of Pe-2, La-7, Yak-3, Su-6 airplanes. Developed 1941-45. First Russian liquid propellant rocket engine family. Production 1944-45.

RD-103.

  • Glushko Lox/Alcohol rocket engine family. Final extrapolation of the V-2 rocket engine in Russia. First flight 1953. Designer at OKB-456 was V A Vitkin.

RD-107.

  • Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine family used on R-7 and subsequent booster stages (including Molniya, Soyuz in 21st Century). First flight 1957. Used four combustion chambers fed by single turbopump to circumvent combustion instability problems with larger chambers 1950's.

RD-108.

  • Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine family.

RD-117.

  • Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine family. Update of RD-107. Little performance change from RD-107, changes may mainly relate to use of all-Russian components.

RD-120.

  • Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine family. High altitude engine used in the Zenit second stage.

RD-134.

  • Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine family. Proposed upper stage engine.

RD-161.

  • Glushko H2O2/Kerosene rocket engine. Proposed for use on Soyuz M-3.

RD-182.

  • Glushko Lox/LCH4 rocket engine family. Methane variant of RD-120K engine.

RD-191.

  • Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine family. Proposed for stage 1 of Angara. Single chamber from 4-chamber RD-170 would have been cheap and fast to develop. Only reached the draft project stage by 2003.

RD-192.

  • Glushko Lox/LCH4 rocket engine family. Proposed methane-variant of RD-191.

RD-2.

  • Glushko Nitric acid/Kerosene rocket engine family. Developed 1945-47. The RD-2 was based on the RD-1 engine.

RD-216.

  • Glushko Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine family. RD-216 was an assembly of 2 RD-215's with 2 combustion chambers and 2 turbines. Two sets of these were in turn used in the first stage of the R-14.

RD-253.

  • Glushko N2O4/UDMH rocket engine family. Development went rather quickly but there were problems transitioning to production.

RD-263.

  • Glushko N2O4/UDMH rocket engine family. Four RD-263 engines combined into RD-264 system.

RD-270.

  • Glushko N2O4/UDMH rocket engine family. Developed 1962-1971, largest rocket engine ever built in the Soviet Union, answer to F-1. Tested but cancelled before combustion instability problems solved.

RD-510.

  • Glushko H2O2/CxHy rocket engine family. Developed 1965-75.

RD-56.

  • Isayev lox/lh2 rocket engine family. Original application N1 block R. Development ended 1971. Design sold to India in 1990's for GSLV.

RD-57.

  • Lyulka lox/lh2 rocket engine family. One to have been used in N1 Block S in 1970's. Cancelled, sold to India in 1990's.

RD-58.

  • Korolev Lox/Kerosene rocket engine family. High-performance upper-stage engine developed for N1 lunar crasher stage, but saw general use as restartable Block D upper stage of Proton launch vehicle. First flight 1967. Also proposed for N12RA, Proryv, LM, 315GK for Zenit, Angara, Energia-M.

RD-68.

  • Yuzhnoye Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine family. R-16 stage 1 attitude control engine.

RD-69.

  • Yuzhnoye Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine family. R-16 stage 2 attitude control engine.

RD-861.

  • Yuzhnoye N2O4/UDMH rocket engine family. Tsiklon 2 and 3 stage 3; Ikar. Based on RD-854.

RDMT-200.

  • NII Mash N2O4/UDMH rocket engine family. Low-thrust attitude control thruster.

RDMT-400.

  • NII Mash N2O4/UDMH rocket engine family. Low-thrust attitude control thruster. Used in Isayev 11D458 engine.

REA 17.

  • Marquardt hydrazine monopropellant rocket engine family.

REA 22.

  • Marquardt hydrazine monopropellant rocket engine family.

Recruit.

  • The Recruit motor was usually used as an upper stage, but in this air-launched vehicle was used for re-entry vehicle heat transfer and aerodynamic stability tests.

Redstone.

  • Redstone was the first large liquid rocket developed in the US using German V-2 technology. Originally designated Hermes C. Redstones later launched the first US satellite and the first American astronaut into space.

Re-entry vehicle technology satellite.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Regulus 1.

  • American intermediate range cruise missile family. The first strategic long-range nuclear-armed guided missile deployed by the US Navy.

Rendezvous technology satellite.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Rescue.

  • In the early 1960's, in the hey-day of the X-20 Dynasoar, it seemed that the US military would naturally keep building military aerospacecraft that would just keep going higher and faster. It was also supposed that the pilot would have to be given the equivalent of an ejection seat - some means of bailing out of the spacecraft in case of catastrophic failure or enemy attack.

Resources.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Resupply.

Retired.

  • Category of launch vehicles.

RH.

  • Indian solid propellant sounding rocket family using indigenous rocket motors derived from French Belier / Jericho rocket engine technology.

RH-125.

  • ISRO VSSC solid rocket engine family.

RH-300.

  • ISRO solid rocket engine family.

RJ47.

  • Wright ramjet engine. 44.6 kN. Development ended 1958. Used on Navaho G-38 launch vehicle.

RL-10.

  • Pratt and Whitney lox/lh2 rocket engine family. First flight 1961. Originally planned for use in Centaur upper stage for Atlas, but earliest successful flights in Saturn IV stage for Saturn I. Throttleable version designed for direct-landing Apollo mission, but cancelled. Sea-level version used in DC-X SSTO test vehicle. Numerous developed versions used in Atlas, Atlas V, Delta IV upper stages. Only production American upper-stage lox/lh2 engine.

RLA.

  • The RLA (Rocket Flight Apparatus) family of modular, lox/kerosene powered vehicles were designed by Glushko in 1974 to meet the Soviet military's third-generation space launch requirements. The approach was rejected by 1976 in favor of the Zenit/Energia family using both lox/kerosene amd lox/hydrogen stages.

RM-100.

  • Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine family. Satellite applications.

RM-25.

  • Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine family. Spacecraft.

rocket.

  • Category applied to unguided rockets.

Rocketplane.

  • Category of launch vehicles and spacecraft.

Rocketplane pilot.

  • Category of persons.

Rockoon.

  • The Rockoon (balloon-launched rocket) consisted of a small high-performance sounding rocket launched from a balloon above most of the atmosphere. The Rockoon low-cost technique was conceived during an Aerobee firing cruse of the Norton Sound in March 1949. Rockoons were first launched from icebreaker Eastwind off Greenland by an ONR group under James A. Van Allen. They were later used by ONR and University of Iowa research groups in 1953-55 and 1957, from ships in sea between Boston and Thule, Greenland. A variety of upper stage rocket stages were used.

Rook.

  • Single stage vehicle consisting of a Rook solid rocket motor. Used initially for supersonic tests of aircraft models.

RS-2101.

  • Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine family. Derivative of RS-14 Minuteman engine.

RS-2200.

  • Rocketdyne lox/lh2 rocket engine family. Linear Aerospike Engine developed for use on the Lockheed Reusable Launch Vehicle, the production follow-on to the X-33.

RS-27.

  • Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine family. Introduced in 1974 on the McDonnell Douglas' Delta 2000 series launcher; replaced the MB-3 as the main system for that launcher. Completed Delta service on the 6000 model in 1992, but continued in use as part of the Atlas MA- 5A powerplant until the retirement of the Atlas.

RS-68.

  • Rocketdyne lox/lh2 rocket engine family. First new large liquid-fueled rocket engine developed in America in more than 25 years. Powered the Delta IV booster. First flight 2002.

RSA.

  • Israel and South Africa collaborated closely in rocket technology in the 1970's and 1980's. South Africa provided Israel with the uranium and test facilities it needed for its strategic weapons programmes. In exchange Israel provided aerospace technology. This included the capability of building the ten-tonne solid propellant rocket motors designed for the Israeli Jericho-2 missile. These motors were the basis of two space launchers for an indigenous 'R5b' space programme. It seems that South Africa also planned to use these motors in a series of missiles to provide a nuclear deterrent.

RT-134.

  • MITT solid rocket engine family.

RT-140.

  • OKB-1 solid rocket engine family.

RT-149.

  • MIHT solid rocket engine family.

RT-15.

  • The RT-15 IRBM used the second and third stages if the RT-2 ICBM. After protracted development in 1961-1970 with a range of alternative self-propelled mobile launchers, limited numbers ('few' to 19) of two types of launchers were deployed in 1970. The various transporters tested created confusion in the West (with designations SS-14 Scapegoat and Scamp being applied).

RT-155.

  • Russian solid rocket engine family.

RT-179.

  • MITT solid rocket engine family.

RT-2.

  • Development of the RT-2, the Soviet Union's first solid propellant ICBM, was undertaken by Sergei Korolev and his successor from 1961-1968. It was a huge technical challenge, involving technology in which the Russians had no prior experience. The high-priority RT-2 preoccupied Korolev and his team throughout the period of the moon race, and could be considered a factor in the loss of that race to the Americans. In the end only sixty were deployed, but these provided the technical basis for Russian ballistic missiles of the 1980's and beyond.

RT-23.

  • The only rail-based ICBM ever deployed. Developed by Yuzhnoye in the Ukraine was protracted, but understandable given the huge technical challenges. Twelve years of design and testing was followed by deployment from 1988. All were retired by 2003.

RT-257.

  • SKB-350 solid rocket engine family.

RTV.

  • JPL solid rocket engine family.

Russian Mars Expeditions.

  • Aelita was the Queen of Mars in the famous socialist parable filmed by Jakov Protazanov in 1924. It was altogether fitting that her name would be given to the leading Soviet plan for the conquest of the Red Planet. The Soviet Union's Korolev had the same original dream as Wernher von Braun - a manned expedition to Mars. In both cases this goal was interrupted by the 'side show' of the moon race of the 1960's. In both cases that race proved so costly and of so little public interest that political support for any Mars expeditions evaporated.

Russian Rocketplanes.

  • The story of rocketplanes and spaceplanes in the Soviet Union was one of constant setbacks due to internal politics, constant struggle with little result.

Russian SAMs and ABMs.

  • Perhaps no missiles ever produced had as much historical influence as the surface-to-air missiles of the Soviet Union. Originally conceived to provide a defence against the American bomber fleets of the early Cold War, they decisively affected the turn of events when they shot down American U-2 reconnaissance aircraft over Russia and Cuba. Soviet-provided missiles accounted for a hundred American aircraft over North Vietnam and set the terms of the air battle. A new generation of missiles presented a huge technological surprise and took an awful toll of Israeli aircraft in the 1973 war. To this day, Russian surface-to-air missiles provide the only defence available to most countries against American bombers, and Russian man-portable anti-aircraft missiles are a major part of the terrorist threat.

RX-250.

  • Indonesian indigenous sounding rocket design.

RX-250-LPN.

  • LAPAN solid rocket engine family.

S.

  • Series of Japanese single-stage sounding rockets designed for low-cost observations of the ionosphere.

S1.5400.

  • Korolev Lox/Kerosene rocket engine family. Designed by Korolev; passed to Isayev for production. Began a series of engines leading through the 8D726 for GR-1 to the Block D for the N1 and Proton.

S2.253.

  • Isayev Nitric acid/Kerosene rocket engine family. R-11 (Scud B) .

S-200.

  • Enormous surface-to-air missile developed by Grushin after the failure of the Dal project. Deployed in limited numbers and exported to countries in the mideast to defend against American high-altitude, high-speed SR-71 reconnaissance aircraft.

S-210.

  • ISAS solid rocket engine family.

S-25.

  • First surface-to-air missile deployed by the Soviet Union. Under a crash program ordered by Stalin, development began in 1951, first guided launch was in 1953, and by 1956, 2,640 launchers were deployed in defence of Moscow. The system was upgraded with improved missiles and ground systems into the 1960's.

S-3.

  • Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine family. Jupiter, Juno II, Saturn A-2 studies of 1959.

S-300.

  • Third generation family of surface-to-air missiles developed in the 1970's based on new principles. The same launch system could use either 5V55 or 48N6 series missiles, of both mid- and long-range types.

S-300V.

  • Mobile, multiple-target, universal integrated surface-to-air missile. The S-300V system can fire either of two versions of the containerised missiles loaded: long range and medium range. These missiles are given different NATO designations. However any mix of the two missiles can be loaded as needed in the vertical launcher cells.

S-310.

  • ISAS solid rocket engine family.

S-400.

  • Fourth generation surface-to-air missile system that replaced the Army's S-300V (SA-12) and the Air Defence Force's S-300PMU (SA-10). The system would feature twice the engagement area of the S-300PMU. Initial service was by the end of 2007.

S-43.

  • IAE solid rocket engine family. Used on VLS launch vehicle.

S5.3.

  • Isayev Nitric acid/Amine rocket engine family. R-21 (SS-N-5). First engine to start underwater.

S-75.

  • Known in the west as the SA-2 Guideline, this weapon was responsible for the downing of more American aircraft than any missile in history. It was deployed worldwide beginning in 1957, and improvements and updates, many by third parties, continued into the 21st Century.

Sandhawk.

  • The Sandhawk motor was developed for Sandia primarily for use in multi-stage rockets launched in support of Atomic Energy Agency activities. It was however flown as a single-stage vehicle in initial tests of the motor and some subsequent scientific mission.s

Saturn.

  • The Saturn launch vehicle was the penultimate expression of the Peenemuende Rocket Team's designs for manned exploration of the moon and Mars. Numerous designs and variants were studied, but in the end only three models - the Saturn I, IB, and V - were built in the 1960's, and then only used to support NASA's Apollo moon landing program.

Saturn C-3.

  • The launch vehicle concept considered for a time as the leading contender for the Earth Orbit Rendezvous approach to an American lunar landing.

Saturn I.

  • Von Braun launch vehicle known as 'Cluster's Last Stand' - 8 Redstone tanks around a Jupiter tank core,powered by eight Jupiter engines. Originally intended as the launch vehicle for Apollo manned circumlunar flights. However it was developed so early, no payloads were available for it.

Saturn V.

  • America's booster for the Apollo manned lunar landing. The design was frozen before a landing mode was selected; the Saturn V could be used for either Earth-Orbit-Rendezvous or Lunar-Orbit-Rendezvous methods. The vehicle ended up with the same payload capability as the 'too large' Nova. The basic diameter was dictated by the ceiling height at the Michoud factory selected for first stage manufacture. Despite the study of innumerable variants, production was ended after only 12 were built and America spent the next fifty years in a pointless slow-motion withdrawal from manned space exploration.

SB-735.

  • Family of launch vehicles.

Science.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Scientist.

  • Category of persons.

Scout.

  • Solid-fuel, light payload, lower-cost launch vehicle developed by the Air Force and NASA in the late 1950's and used in a variety of configurations over thirty years. Launched from Cape Canaveral, Vandenberg, Wallops Island, and from Italy's equatorial San Marco platform off Kenya. Italy studied but did not develop subsequent upgraded versions.

SE-7.

  • Rocketdyne N2O4/MMH rocket engine family. Developed for Gemini Orbit Attitude and Maneuvering System; later satellite applications.

SE-9.

  • Rocketdyne N2O4/Aerozine-50 rocket engine family. Titan III Transtage.

Sea Launch Area.

  • Category of launch sites.

Sea-Launched.

  • Category of launch vehicles.

Seaslug.

  • Ramjet-powered surface-to-air missile series.

Seijil.

  • Family of Iranian launch vehicles.

Seliger.

  • Berthold Seliger's firm designed a modular series of sounding rockets in 1961-1964. One, two, and three stage versions were built, reaching 52, 80, and 120 km altitude.

SEPR 740.

  • SEPR solid rocket engine family.

Sergeant.

  • Single-stage solid-propulsion tactical ballistic missile developed for the US Army. Surplus rockets and the Sergeant's rocket motor (known commercially as Castor) became the basis for many sounding rockets.

Shahab.

  • Iranian derivatives of North Korean Nodong 1 intermediate range ballistic missile, evolved incrementally with Russian assistance into a longer-range missile and the first stage of an orbital launch vehicle.

Shaheen.

  • Pakistani ballistic missile family, starting with license-assembled Chinese DF-15's and progressing to indigenous models.

Shavit.

  • Satellite launcher derived from Jericho II MRBM, essentially identical to South African RSA-3. NEXT was a variant with an improved upper stage for proposed launch from Wallops Island, USA (launch from Israel is only possible into retrograde orbits since due East launch would be over territory of adjacent countries).

ship-launched.

  • Category of missiles.

short range ballistic.

  • Category of missiles.

short range cruise.

  • Category of missiles.

Shuguang Group - 1970.

  • Requirement: pilot astronauts for the Shuguang program.

Shuttle.

  • The manned reusable space system which was designed to slash the cost of space transport and replace all expendable launch vehicles. It did neither, but did keep NASA in the manned space flight business for 30 years.

SIGINT.

  • Category of spacecraft.

silo-launched.

  • Category of missiles.

Skua.

  • In 1959, the Royal Meteorological Office's High Altitude Research Unit contracted with Bristol Aerojet and RPE Wescott to develop a low-cost meteorological rocket designed to reach altitudes of 80 km. The resulting Skua design consisted of Chick boosters which burned for 0.2 seconds to blast the rocket 20 m above the 5 m launch tube. Then the Bantam second stage would ignite and boost the payload to altitude. Four Skua variants were flown over the years.

Skylark.

  • The Skylark sounding rocket (originally named the Gassiot High Altitude Vehicle) was produced by the Royal Aircraft Establishment and first introduced in 1957, during the International Geophysical Year. It remained in European service until 2005.

Sled-Launched.

  • Category of launch vehicles.

SLS.

  • In the mid-1950's, US Air Force-funded studies identified the optimum long-term solution for space launch. The studies indicated the desirability of segmented solids for a first stage to achieve low cost, high reliability and flexibility of basic booster size by adding or subtracting segments. Studies further showed that oxygen-hydrogen propellants, with their very high specific impulse, were a preferred choice for upper stages, where mass was more important. This choice also resulted in minimum systems cost.

SLV.

  • Family of launch vehicles.

Snark.

  • Intercontinental range subsonic cruise missile. The only intercontinental surface-to-surface cruise missile ever deployed by the US Air Force. Deployed only briefly, but the control and navigation technology developed for it during the 1950's provided the basis for later Northrop navigation systems used in strategic ballistic missiles.

Solar.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Solar orbit.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Solar satellite.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Solid.

  • Category of engines.

Sonda.

  • Brazilian sounding rocket family.

Sonda 1.

  • IAE solid rocket engine family.

Sounding Rocket.

  • Category of launch vehicles.

Soviet Space Stations.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Soviet Strategic Cruise Missiles.

  • As in America, in the 1946 assessments of German military technology, the technical problems of the intercontinental ballistic missile seemed far less than a high-speed cruise missile for the same mission. The Soviet Union developed several such missiles, counterparts to the American Navaho. As in America, it turned out that the ICBM was ready before the cruise missiles were - the navigation and propulsion issues of Mach 3 intercontinental flight were much more difficult than those for Mach 22 ballistic flight. As in America, the projects were cancelled, although they contributed greatly to the national technological base.

Soyuz.

  • The Russian Soyuz spacecraft has been the longest-lived, most adaptable, and most successful manned spacecraft design. In production for fifty years, more than 240 have been built and flown on a wide range of missions. The design will remain in use with the international space station well into the 21st century, providing the only manned access to the station after the retirement of the shuttle in 2011.

Space station.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Space station module.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Space station orbit.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Space suit.

  • Pressurized garment worn by an astronaut in vacuum conditions.

Space Suits.

  • To explore and work in space, human beings must take their environment with them because there is no atmospheric pressure and no oxygen to sustain life. Inside the spacecraft, the atmosphere can be controlled so that special clothing is not needed. But in order to work outside the spacecraft, humans need the protection of a spacesuit.

Space Tourist - 2009.

  • Astronaut training group.

Space Tourist Group - 2000.

  • Paid space tourist mission to ISS.

Space Tourist Group - 2001.

  • Paid space tourist mission to ISS.

Space Tourist Group - 2006.

  • Paid space tourist mission to ISS.

Space tug.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Space Tugs.

  • Category of spacecraft.

SpaceLoft.

  • Series of commercial suborbital rockets marketed by Up Industries.

Spaceplane.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Sparoair.

  • Air-launched two stage vehicle consisting of tandem Sparrow air-to-air missile motors.

SPT-100.

  • Stechkin electric rocket engine family. Meteor, Gals. Marketed in USA by Space Systems/Loral and Fakel.

SR19.

  • Aerojet solid rocket engine family.

SRAM.

  • Short Range Attack Missile, a relatively small standoff missile for use by USAF's B-52 and FB-111A strategic bombers.

SRB.

  • Thiokol solid rocket engine family. Segmented solid rocket boosters for the compromised space shuttle design. Field joint design led to Challenger shuttle disaster. Production 1981-1985, after which superseded by RSRM's.

SRB-A.

  • Nissan solid rocket engine family. Monolithic motor, shorter than that for H-2, using Thiokol filament wound composite structure.

SSBS.

  • French medium-range ballistic missile.

SSME.

  • Rocketdyne lox/lh2 rocket engine family. Space Shuttle Main Engines; only high-pressure closed-cycle reusable cryogenic rocket engine ever flown. Three mounted in the base of the American space shuttle. First flight 1981.

SSTO.

  • Category of launch vehicles. Single Stage To Orbit.

ST-735.

  • NASDA solid rocket engine.

Standard-ER.

  • American Navy long range surface-to-air missile family. Later versions had anti-ballistic missile and anti-satellite capability.

Star 12.

  • Thiokol solid rocket engine family.

Star 13.

  • Thiokol solid rocket engine family.

Star 17.

  • Thiokol solid rocket engine family.

Star 20.

  • Thiokol solid rocket engine family.

Star 24.

  • Thiokol solid rocket engine family.

Star 26.

  • Thiokol solid rocket engine family.

Star 27.

  • Thiokol solid rocket engine family.

Star 30.

  • Thiokol solid rocket engine family.

Star 37.

  • Thiokol solid rocket engine family.

Star 48.

  • Thiokol solid rocket engine family. Used in Delta 3900; Conesotga; PAM-S; PAM-D.

Star 5.

  • Thiokol solid rocket engine family.

Star 6.

  • Thiokol solid rocket engine family.

Star 63.

  • Thiokol solid rocket engine family.

Star Wars.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Stonechat.

  • Single stage hypersonic test vehicles using variants of the Stonechat solid rocket motor.

Storable liquid.

  • Category of engines.

strategic communications.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Strela.

  • Family of spacecraft.

Stromboli.

  • The second series of Sud Aviation sounding rockets were designed to carry large diameter payloads, and used Stromboli motors only.

Strongarm.

  • A large five-stage rocket developed by the Army Ballistics Research Laboratory with the cooperation of the University of Michigan. Consisted of an Honest John plus Nike plus Nike plus modified Recruit plus a scaled-down Sergeant. Fired first from Wallops Island on November 10, 1959. Could lift 6.8 kg to 1600 km.

Strypi.

  • Family of re-entry vehicle test boosters and anti-missile targets using a Castor first stage with two recruit strap-ons, plus a range of upper stages.

Study.

  • Category of launch vehicles and spacecraft.

submarine-launched.

  • Category of missiles.

Suborbital.

  • Category of launch vehicles.

Suborbital Launch Site.

  • Category of launch sites.

suborbital launch vehicle.

  • Category of launch vehicles.

Sun synchronous orbit.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Super Chief.

  • Series of large sounding rockets developed by Aerojet Space Data using the Talos booster, various upper stages, and Astrobee electronics.

surface-to-air.

  • Category of missiles.

Surveillance.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Surveillance orbit.

  • Category of spacecraft.

System 49.

  • The Spiral project was not cancelled with the decision to proceed with the large Buran spaceplane. Instead flight test of the orbiter continued but the launcher design was rethought. The ambitious Mach 4 air-breathing first stage was abandoned. Instead the rocket stages and the manned Spiral orbiter were mounted on the back of an An-124 subsonic transport. This concept would evolve through the Bizan concept to the MAKS of the 1980's, which reached the hardware development stage.

T-7.

  • China's first sounding rocket and first indigenously-built sounding rocket, launched from 1960-1965. The basic vehicle consisted of a single liquid propellant stage. This was later augmented with solid propellant booster stages. Later versions dispensed with the liquid propellant stage.

tactical ballistic.

  • Category of missiles.

tactical cruise.

  • Category of missiles.

Taepodong.

  • North Korean long-range ballitic missile and satellite launch vehicle consisted of a No-Dong 1 IRBM as the first stage, and a derivative of the Scud-C SRBM as the second stage.

Taikonaut.

  • Person trained for spaceflight in China.

Talos.

  • American Navy long-range ramjet-powered surface-to-air missile family.

target.

  • Category of missiles.

Taurus.

  • Pad-launched launch vehicle using Pegasus upper stages and Castor-120 first stage.

Teacher.

  • Category of persons.

Technology.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Technology satellite.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Temp-S.

  • The Temp-S was the first solid propellant tactical guided missile deployed in the USSR. It was designed by A D Nadiradze at NII-1 and formed the basis of subsequent designs leading to current modern Russian ICBM's.

Terrier.

  • Standard US Navy surface-to-air missile developed during the 1950's. Modified single stage Navy Terrier missiles were used as sounding rockets, sometimes supplemented with upper stages.

Test Engineer.

  • Category of persons.

Test Pilot.

  • Category of persons.

Test Pilot (Bell).

  • Category of persons.

Test Pilot (NASA).

  • Category of persons.

Test Pilot (Northrop).

  • Category of persons.

Test Pilot (Scaled Composites).

  • Pilots for SpaceShipOne, the first private manned spacecraft (with two additional seats for passengers)

Test Pilot (USAF).

  • Category of persons.

Test Pilot (USSR).

  • Category of persons.

test vehicle.

  • Category of missiles.

Tether technology satellite.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Timberwind.

  • DARPA project. Nuclear fission engine using pebble bed reactor with spherical fuel elements.

Titan.

  • The Titan launch vehicle family was developed by the United States Air Force to meet its medium lift requirements in the 1960's. The designs finally put into production were derived from the Titan II ICBM. Titan outlived the competing NASA Saturn I launch vehicle and the Space Shuttle for military launches. It was finally replaced by the USAF's EELV boosters, the Atlas V and Delta IV. Although conceived as a low-cost, quick-reaction system, Titan was not successful as a commercial launch vehicle. Air Force requirements growth over the years drove its costs up - the Ariane using similar technology provided lower-cost access to space.

TKS.

  • Family of spacecraft.

Tochka.

  • Tactical short-range ballistic missile, deployed from 1976.

Tomahawk Sandia.

  • Test and sounding vehicles developed by Sandia using the TE-416 Tomahawk motor.

Topol.

  • Containerised all-solid propellant Nadiradze ICBM designed for launch from mobile and silo launchers. Replaced UR-100/UR-100NU in silos.

TR-1.

  • Single stage vehicle.

Tracking network technology satellite.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Trailblazer.

  • The Trailblazer rockets were designed to conduct experiments in re-entry physics.

train-launched.

  • Category of missiles.

Trident.

  • US Navy submarine-launched ballistic missiles, which superseded the Polaris.

Tsiklon.

  • The R-36 ICBM was the largest ever built and the bogeyman of the Pentagon throughout the Cold War. Dubbed the 'city buster', the 308 silos built were constantly held up by the US Air Force as an awesome threat that justified a new round of American missile or anti-missile systems. On the other hand, the Americans were never motivated to build and deploy corresponding numbers of their equivalent, the liquid propellant Titan 2. Derivatives of the R-36 included the R-36-O orbital bombing system, the Tsiklon-2 and -3 medium orbital launch vehicles, and the replacement R-36M missiles. With the collapse of the Soviet Union, the design and manufacturing facility ended up in independent Ukraine. Accordingly the missile was finally retired in the 1990's, conveniently in accordance with arms reduction agreements with the Americans.

TT-500.

  • NASDA solid rocket engine family.

Tug.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Turbofan.

  • Category of engines.

Turbojet.

  • Category of engines.

UA1200.

  • CSD solid rocket engine family.

Ukraine Group - 1996.

  • Requirement: pilots from Ukraine to visit Mir space station for propaganda purposes on Soyuz ferry-exchange mission.

Ultraviolet astronomy satellite.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Upper Stages.

  • Category of engines.

UR-100.

  • The UR-100 lightweight ICBM was the Soviet answer to the US Minuteman and was deployed in larger numbers than any other in history. It remained an enigma outside of intelligence circles in the West until after the collapse of the Soviet Union. It allowed the Soviet Union to match, and then surpass the United States in strategic deterrent capability. As such it was Vladimir Chelomei's crowning legacy to his country.

UR-100N.

  • The UR-100N was designed as a replacement for the UR-100 at the end of its ten year storage life. Although it could be installed in the same silos, it was 50% heavier. The competing design of Yangel, the MR-UR-100, was also put into production when the Soviet hierarchy deadlocked and could not pick one design over the other.

UR-200.

  • Universal rocket designed by Chelomei to cover the ICBM, FOBS, satellite launch vehicle, and spaceplane booster roles. Flight tested in 1963-1964 but cancelled in favour of Yangel's R-36.

UR-700.

  • The UR-700 was the member of Vladimir Chelomei's Universal Rocket family designed in the 1960's to allow direct manned flight by the LK-700 spacecraft to the surface of the moon. Later versions, some of completely different configuration, were studied for manned Mars expeditions.

US.

  • Family of spacecraft.

US Cruise Missiles.

  • Category of launch vehicles.

US Rocketplanes.

  • Category of spacecraft.

US Space Stations.

  • Wernher von Braun brought Noordung's rotating station design with him from Europe. This he popularized in the early 1950's in selling manned space flight to the American public. By the late 1950's von Braun's team favoured the spent-stage concept - which eventually flew as Skylab. By the mid-1960's, NASA was concentrating on modular, purpose-built, zero-G stations. These eventually flew as the International Space Station.

USAF Dynasoar Group - 1960.

  • Requirement: pilots for X-20A Dyna-Soar spaceplane flights.

USAF Dynasoar Group - 1962.

  • Requirement: supplemental pilot for X-20A Dyna-Soar spaceplane flights to replace Armstrong and Dana.

USAF MOL Group 1 - 1965.

  • Requirement: crews for flights of the Manned Orbiting Laboratory, a classified military manned space station.

USAF MOL Group 2 - 1966.

  • Requirement: crews for flights of the Manned Orbiting Laboratory, a classified military manned space station.

USAF MOL Group 3 - 1967.

  • Requirement: crews for flights of the Manned Orbiting Laboratory, a classified military manned space station.

Ute.

  • The Ute (TU-715) motor was developed from the Genie motor baseline. Later derivatives were combined with booster or upper stages.

V-1.

  • Family of launch vehicles.

V-2.

  • The V-2 ballistic missile (known to its designers as the A4) was the world's first operational liquid fuel rocket. It represented an enormous quantum leap in technology, financed by Nazi Germany in a huge development program that cost at least $ 2 billion in 1944 dollars. 6,084 V-2 missiles were built, 95% of them by 20,000 slave labourer in the last seven months of World War II at a unit price of $ 17,877.

Vanguard.

  • Vanguard was the 'civilian' vehicle developed by the US Navy to launch America's first satellite as part of the International Geophysical Year. The Army / von Braun Jupiter-C instead launched the first US satellite after Sputnik and Vanguard's public launch failure. The second stage design led to the Able upper stage for Thor/Atlas, and then to the Delta upper stage still in use in the 21st Century. The original version of Vanguard used a Grand Central final stage.

VE.

  • Series of Experimental Vehicles (VE's), each named after precious stones, leading to the MSBS/SSBS solid propellant missiles that made up the French nuclear deterrent.

Vega SAM.

  • French surface-to-air missile, tested at Hammaguir in early 1961 but not put into production.

vehicle-launched.

  • Category of missiles.

Venus.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Venus probe.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Veronique.

  • After the cancellation of the 'Super V-2' project, the German team at Vernon pursued development of a tenth-scale version, the Project 4213 Veronique (VERnon et electrONIQUE). The 4 tonne thrust motor, using nitric acid and kerosene, beat the 'pure French' project 4211 Eole design and paved the way leading to the Ariane space booster.

Veterinarian.

  • Category of persons.

Vexin.

  • SEP N2O4/UDMH rocket engine family

Viking.

  • The Viking sounding rocket, originally code-named Neptune, was conceived in 1945 by the US Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) as having the same altitude capability as the V-2 but only one third the mass. Martin was given the contract to develop the rocket, and Reaction Motors the engine. The advanced design featured a gimbaled pump-fed engine, a fuel tank integral with the fuselage. All rockets would be static-tested and certified before launch. The first launch was on 3 May 1949. Viking was abandoned in 1954 as too expensive, but Martin's experience on the design led to the first stage of the Vanguard orbital launch vehicle and the Titan ICBM.

Viper.

  • Single stage sounding rocket developed as a follow-on to the Loki-Dart.

Visible astronomy satellite.

  • Category of spacecraft.

VKS.

  • RKK Energia's proposed solution to the Soviet government's MVKS requirement for a single-stage-to-orbit reusable aerospaceplane system was this 700-metric-ton, turboramjet/rocket mised propulsion design. Work began in 1986 but abandoned when the Soviet Union collapsed.

VLS.

  • Brazilian satellite launcher building on successful family of sounding rockets.

Von Braun.

  • In 1948, with the US Army's V-2 test project winding down, Wernher Von Braun was ensconced in isolated Fort Bliss. He had, unusually, some time on his hands. He occupied himself by writing a novel concerning an expedition to Mars, grounded on accurate engineering estimates. As an appendix to the novel he documented his calculations.

Voskhod Group - 1964.

  • Payload specialists and physicians for Voskhod spaceflights.

Voskhod Physician Group - 1965.

  • Requirement: physician for planned Voskhod flight.

Vostok.

  • Family of spacecraft.

VTOVL.

  • The concept of a reusable single-stage-to-orbit Vertical Take-Off Vertical Landing (VTOVL) launch vehicle that would reenter and return to its launch site for turnaround and relaunch was first proposed by Philip Bono in the 1960's. The appealing simplicity of the concept has been offset by the technological risk in developing it. The problem with any single-stage-to-orbit concept is that if the empty weight of the final vehicle has been underestimated it will not be able to deliver any payload to orbit, or even reach orbit. Since weight growth of up to 20% is not unknown in aerospace projects, this is a very real threat which has made both NASA and private investors reluctant to invest the billions of dollars it would take to develop a full-scale flight vehicle.

Vulcain.

  • SEP, Ottobrunn lox/lh2 rocket engine family. Powered the cryogenic core stage of Ariane 5. First flight 1996. Upgraded versions developed and proposed for later Ariane 5 versions.

Vulkan Engineering Group - 1968.

  • Requirement: engineer to operate Vulkan space welding system

Wac.

  • Development of the JPL-Ordnance WAC began in 1944. In 1946 it became the first American rocket to exceed 80 km altitude (above the earth's atmosphere as defined by publicity of the time). It was capable of taking 11 kg to 30 km altitude and was powered by a liquid propellant engine originally developed for JATO applications.

Weather.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Winged.

  • In the beginning, nobody (except Jules Verne) thought anybody would be travelling to space and back in ballistic cannon balls. The only proper way for a space voyager to return to earth was at the controls of a real winged airplane.

Writer.

  • Category of persons.

X-15.

  • Family of spacecraft.

X-17.

  • USAF X-17 flight test program at Cape Canaveral studied reentry problems by simulating reentry velocities and conditions with a three-stage solid-fuel Lockheed X-17. A total of 26 X-17 flights were conducted until March 1957.

X-248.

  • Thiokol solid rocket engine family. Used on Atlas Able, Blue Scout 2, Caleb, Delta, Delta A, Delta B, Delta C. First flight 1959.

X-259.

  • Thiokol solid rocket engine family. Used on Scout A, Scout B, Scout D, Scout F, Scout X-2, Scout X-3, Scout X-4. First flight 1962.

X-34.

  • NASA failed to attract industry co-investment to develop the original X-34A air-launched, reusable, low-technology, low-cost orbital launch vehicle concept. So the project was scaled back and NASA contracted with Orbital Sciences on 28 August 1996 to build and fly the X-34 unmanned technology demonstrator. This program in turn developed overruns and was cancelled in 2001 before a test flight was made.

X-Prize.

  • The X-Prize competition was an attempt to promote commercial civilian spaceflight in a manner similar to the prizes handed out in the early days of aviation. Ten million dollars was to go to the first team to fly a vehicle capable of launching three people into space (defined as an altitude of 100 km in a suborbital trajectory), twice in a two-week period. The vehicle had to be 90% reusable by dry mass. For purposes of the two flights, the competition accepted flight by one person and ballast equivalent to two others at 90 kg per passenger.

X-ray astronomy satellite.

  • Category of spacecraft.

Yantar.

  • Family of spacecraft.

YaRD ICBM.

  • Single-stage nuclear-powered ICBM designed by OKB-1.

    A 30 June 1958 resolution authorised development of this astounding weapon, and the draft project was completed on 30 December 1959. Perhaps coming under the heading of 'inadvisable rocket science', test launches would have been into an artificial reservoir in the target area to limit contamination by having the reactor crash into water at the end of its trajectory.

YF-20.

  • Beijing Wan Yuan N2O4/UDMH rocket engine family. Boosted CZ-2A, CZ-2C, CZ-2E(A), CZ-3, FB-1. First flight 1972.

YF-22.

  • Beijing Wan Yuan N2O4/UDMH rocket engine family.

YF-25.

  • Beijing Wan Yuan N2O4/UDMH rocket engine family.

Yuhangyuan.

  • Person trained for spaceflight in China.

Zenit.

  • Zenit was to be a modular new generation medium Soviet launch vehicle, replacing the various ICBM-derived launch vehicles in use since the 1960's (Tsiklon and Soyuz). A version of the first stage was used as strap-ons for the cancelled Energia heavy booster. But it was built by Yuzhnoye in the Ukraine; when the Soviet Union broke up planned large-scale production for the Soviet military was abandoned (Angara development was begun as an indigenous alternative). Launch pads were completed only at Baikonur; those at Plesetsk were never finished and are planned to be completed as Angara pads. However the vehicle found new life as a commercial launch vehicle, launched from a sea platform by an American/Ukrainian consortium.

Zvezda Engineer Group - 1990.

  • Requirement: engineer for flights to Mir space station.

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