Encyclopedia Astronautica
R-11



r11cut.jpg
R-11 Cutaway
First Russian ballistic missile using storable propellants, developed from the German Wasserfall SAM by Korolev's OKB. The design was then spun off to the Makeyev OKB for development of Army (R-17 Scud) and SLBM (R-11FMA) derivatives.

The R-11 originated as Theme N-2 of the R-3 IRBM project. This was an alternate approach to delivering nuclear warheads on West European targets - a road-mobile missile of shorter range that could be set up at the forward area of the battlefield and reach enemy targets. A submarine-launched version would allow all of the major cities of Western Europe to be reached. The specification was for a missile of the range and payload of the German V-2, but of less than half the size, using non-cryogenic propellants.

The R-11 design adapted the Isayev rocket engine used in the V-300 / R-101 antiaircraft missile (itself a Russian-built version of the German Wasserfall). Following the decision to drop the R-3A, a 20 October 1951 MOP decree authorised work to start on the R-5 and R-11. Due to the extensive work already done under the Theme N-2, the 8 volume R-11 draft project was delivered on 30 November 1951. Korolev did not agree with the production of rockets using the R-11's toxic storable propellants, and project leader Viktor Petrovich Makeyev had to persevere in developing the rocket without his boss' support.

The first test flight was made on 18 April 1953. Massive problems were encountered in the difficult test series - with poor-quality kerosene fuel, handling and leakage of the propellants, and reliable start of the engine. But the Red Army saw much more promise in the design than in Korolev's cumbersome liquid oxygen rockets. A government decree was issued on 13 December 1953 for SKB-385 in the Urals to be responsible for series production of the R-11 and its S2.253 engine. SKB-385 had not distinguished itself in 1949-1951 when it was responsible for the first abortive attempt to put the R-1 rocket into production.

Following a protracted two-year test series, the design was finally accepted for military service on 13 July 1955. In anticipation of this formal decree, in June of 1955 Makeyev was made Chief Designer at SKB-385, responsible for engineering of the R-11 and future small land and sea based ballistic missiles. SKB-385 was given complete responsibility for development of the sub-launched R-11FM in August 1955.

Tests of the R-11FM had begun in February 1955 at Kapustin Yar with three experimental launches of the missile from a standard R-11 launch stand. This was followed by launches from a special stand simulating a ship's motion, developed by A P Abramov. Finally a third test series was conducted from the Project 611 submarine B-57 from 16 September to 13 October 1955 in the White Sea. This demonstrated launches from a pitching surfaced vessel and a total range of 150 km. Following further trials the system was accepted for military surface in 1959, but never deployed on an operational vessel. However the project had cemented Makeyev's relationship with the Soviet Navy, which decided to make him their sole source for all future naval ballistic missiles.

Meanwhile Makeyev had moved quickly to redesign the R-11 to remedy all of the basic defects identified in the trials. This included a new, less troublesome, higher performance propellant combination. The state authorised work to begin on the R-11M missile on 26 August 1954. This was followed by the first launch on 30 December 1955 and acceptance of the design for service on 1 April 1958.

The final refinement of the R-11 design was the R-17, to be exported and infamous around the world as the Scud-B. In 1958-1959 Makeyev designed and built the first mock-up of the new missile. But by then the decision was made to devote the bureau to sea-launched missiles, and in 1959 the program was transferred to Votkinsk Machine Building Plant. There design work continued with first launch in 1961 and acceptance into military service in 1964.

Range 270 km with 690 kg, accuracy 1.5 km/0.75 km. Maximum altitude 78 km. Time of flight 5.4 minutes. Max velocity at burnout 1430 m/s. Data is accurate. Source: placards at Orevo and TsNIIMASH.

More... - Chronology...


Associated Launch Vehicles
  • R-11 First Russian ballistic missile using storable propellants, developed from the German Wasserfall SAM by Korolev's OKB. The design was then spun off to the Makeyev OKB for development of Army (R-17 Scud) and SLBM (R-11FMA) derivatives. More...
  • R-11FM First Russian submarine-launched ballistic missile. Following protracted testing the design was accepted by the military in 1959 but never put into operational service. More...
  • R-11M Russian submarine-launched ballistic missile. Improved production version of R-11, not retired until 1977. More...
  • R-11A Russian suborbital launch vehicle. Version of the R-11 'Scud' missile used as a sounding rocket. First launched in 1957, and capable of taking 250 to 400 kg of payload to 100 to 160 km altitude. The payloads were enclosed in a spherical re-entry capsule, which was gyro-stabilised to ensure instruments could be pointed precisely at the sun or other astronomical target. More...
  • R-11A-MV Russian suborbital launch vehicle. Sounding rocket version of R-11 with increased payload. More...

Associated Launch Sites
  • Kapustin Yar Russia's first missile test range and used for satellite launches of smaller Kosmos vehicles. V-2's launched from here in 1946 were the first ballistic missiles fired on Soviet territory. It was greatly expanded as the test site for innumerable Soviet intermediate and short range missile projects in the 1950's.. Kapustin Year was also headquarters of the first operational R-1/R-2 units, 1950-1953, and later a base for 12 operational R-14 missile launchers. Kapustin Yar was known to have been used for over 3519 major launches from 1946 to 2007. More...
  • Pacific Ocean Sounding rocket launches made from naval vessels in the Pacific accounted for 280 launches from 1949 to 2006, reaching up to 1000 kilometers altitude. More...
  • White Sea Launch Area Submarine-launched ballistic missile area known to have been used for 27 launches from 1955 to 2007, reaching up to 1000 kilometers altitude. More...
  • Sea-launched Sounding rocket launched from a naval vessel at an undocumented location. 2001 launches from 1956 to 2008, reaching up to 35,820 kilometers altitude, fall into this category. More...
  • Kheysa Soviet arctic sounding rocket launch site, known to have been used for 1950 launches from 1957 to 1990, reaching up to 200 kilometers altitude. More...

R-11 Chronology


1949 June - . LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11.
  • Groettrup team designs R-13. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Groettrup. Summary: Groettrup group consulted on 'R-13' (code name for R-11?). Specifications include 1000 kg warhead, 120 km range..

1949 December 7 - . LV Family: R-11; R-7. Launch Vehicle: Buran; Burya; G-4; R-3; R-3A; R-5.
  • Groettrup G-4 IRBM evaluated against Korolev's R-3. R-3 project reformulated - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Korolev. Program: Navaho. The NTS (Scientific-Technical Soviet) of NII-88 met in plenary session and subjected Korolev's proposal to withering criticism. The G-4 was found to be superior. After heated discussion, the Soviet approved further development of technology for the R-3, but not the missile itself. The decisions were: an R-3A technology demonstrator would be built and flown under Project N-1 (probably to prove G-4 concepts). Under Project N-2 both the RD-110 and D-2 engines would proceed into development test in order to prove Lox/Kerosene propellant technology. Packet rocket and lightweight structure research for use in an ICBM would continue under project N-3 / T-1. Winged intercontinental cruise missile studies would continue under project N-3 / T-2. Neither the G-4 or R-3 ended up in production, but the design concepts of the G-4 led directly to Korolev's R-7 ICBM (essentially a cluster of G-4's or R-3A's) and the N1 superbooster. Work on the G-4 continued through 1952.

1951 October 20 - . LV Family: R-11; R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-3; R-3A.
  • MOP decree authorised work to start on the R-5 and R-11. - . Nation: USSR. The R-3 3000 km range missile and R-3A subscale technology demonstrator were cancelled. As a replacement work was to start on the R-5 and R-11. The missiles originated as Theme N-2 of the R-3 project. This was an alternate approach to delivering nuclear warheads on West European targets - road-mobile or sub-launched missiles of shorter range with lighter warheads that could be launched from forward areas and reach enemy targets.

1951 November 30 - . LV Family: R-11; R-5.
  • R-5, R-11 draft projects completed. - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Due to the extensive work already done under the Theme N-2, the 6 volume R-5 and 8 volume R-11 draft projects were delivered in record time..

1953 February 13 - . LV Family: Kosmos 2; R-11; R-5; R-7. Launch Vehicle: EKR.
  • Authorisation for development of Soviet intermediate and intercontinental range missiles. - . Nation: USSR. Council of Soviet Ministers (SM) Decree 'On approval of work on themes T1 and T2, on approval of work on the R-5, R-11, and EKR missiles, and on transferring draft project work for the R-12 from NII-88 to SKB-586' was issued. The decree set forth three phases of state trials tests for the R-5 missile.

1953 April 18 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi). Massive problems were encountered in the difficult test series - with poor-quality kerosene fuel, handling and leakage of the propellants, and reliable start of the engine. But the Red Army saw much more promise in the design than in Korolev's cumbersome liquid oxygen rockets.

1953 May 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1953 June 3 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

End of 1953 - . LV Family: Kosmos 2; R-11.
  • Khrushchev and Ustinov decide to create additional independent missile design bureaux - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Khrushchev; Makeyev; Yangel; Korolev; Ustinov. Khrushchev desired to decentralise the missile industry, since a single nuclear bomb on Moscow would wipe out Korolevís factories. Ustinov was requested to draw up a plan for two additional completely independent missile design bureaux, one in the south of the Soviet Union, the other in the Urals. It was also envisioned a third bureau would be built in the east, in Siberia, but this was never done. This effort cost tens of billions of roubles. While the managers and lead technical staff would be taken from Korolevís bureau, the working engineers, technicians, and workers for the bureau and associated factories would be recruited locally at each site. This would avoid the additional expense of building extra housing. Korolev fought to keep control, wanting to make the new bureaux just branches of his own, but Khrushchev was adamant that only completely autonomous organisations would be acceptable. Yangel was easily selected for the southern bureau, and the young Makeyev was a more contentious selection for the Ural bureau.

1953 December 13 - . LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11.
  • R-11 production decree - . Nation: USSR. A government decree was issued for SKB-385 in the Urals to be responsible for series production of the R-11 and its S2.253 engine. SKB-385 had not distinguished itself in 1949-1951 when it was responsible for the first abortive attempt to put the R-1 rocket into production.

1954 January 26 - . LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11FM.
  • R-11FM authorised. - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Council of Soviet Ministers (SM) Decree 'On approval of work on the R-11FM' was issued..

1954 February 3 - . LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11FM.
  • R-11FM platform development authorised - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Council of Soviet Ministers (SM) Decree 'On creation of the submerged submarine-launched ballistic missile' was issued..

1954 April 20 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1954 May 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1954 May 13 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1954 July 13 - . LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11.
  • R-11 accepted into military service. - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Council of Soviet Ministers (SM) Decree 'On adoption of the R-11 into armaments' was issued..

1954 August 26 - . LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11.
  • R-11M development authorised. - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Council of Soviet Ministers (SM) Decree 'On approval of work on the R-11M missile' was issued..

1954 September 26 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar SM-49. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11FM.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1954 October 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11FM.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1954 October 20 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11FM.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1954 December 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1955 January 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1955 February - . LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11FM.
  • Tests of the R-11FM SLBM begun at Kapustin Yar - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Tests began with three experimental launches of the missile from a standard R-11 launch stand. This was followed by launches from a special stand simulating a ship's motion, developed by A P Abramov..

1955 February 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1955 May 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11FM.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1955 May 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11FM.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1955 May 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11FM.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1955 May 21 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11FM.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1955 June 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11FM.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1955 June 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11FM.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1955 June 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11FM.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1955 July 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11FM.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1955 July 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11FM.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1955 July 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11FM.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1955 July 13 - . LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11.
  • R-11 accepted for military service - . Nation: USSR. Following a protracted two-year test series, the design was finally accepted for military service on 13 July 1955. In anticipation of this formal decree, in June of 1955 Makeyev was made Chief Designer at SKB-385, responsible for engineering of the R-11 and future small land and sea based ballistic missiles. SKB-385 was given complete responsibility for development of the sub-launched R-11FM in August 1955.

1955 July 30 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11FM.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1955 August - . LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11FM.
  • SKB-385 given complete responsibility for development of the sub-launched R-11FM - . Nation: USSR. Summary: This derivative of the land-based R-11 ('Scud') was the first Soviet SLBM..

1955 September 12 - . 14:32 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sea Launch Area. Launch Pad: 65.5 N x 38.0 E. Launch Platform: B-67. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11FM.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi). Summary: The third test series was conducted from the Project 611 submarine B-67 through 13 October 1955 in the White Sea. This demonstrated launches from a pitching surfaced vessel and a total range of 150 km..

1955 December 30 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11M.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1956 January 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11M.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1956 January 19 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11M.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1956 July 11 - . LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11.
  • Sounding rocket variant of the R-11 authorised. - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Decree 'On approval of work on the R-11A missile for the IGY' was issued..

1956 October 31 - . Launch Site: Sea-launched. Launch Pad: BELA. Launch Platform: B-67. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11FM.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1956 October 31 - . Launch Site: Sea-launched. Launch Pad: BELA. Launch Platform: B-67. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11FM.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1956 December 26 - . Launch Site: Sea-launched. Launch Pad: BELA. Launch Platform: B-67?. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11FM.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1957 March 25 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11M.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1957 April 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11M.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1957 April 11 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11M.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1957 August 1 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11M.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1957 August 8 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11M.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1957 September 2 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11M.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1958 March 31 - . Launch Site: Sea-launched. Launch Pad: BELA. Launch Platform: B-67?. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11FM.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1958 April 1 - . LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11.
  • R-11M accepted into military service. - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Decree 'On adoption of the R-11M into armaments' was issued..

1958 May 25 - . Launch Site: Sea-launched. Launch Pad: BELA. Launch Platform: B-67?. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11FM.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1958 May 26 - . Launch Site: Sea-launched. Launch Pad: BELA. Launch Platform: B-67?. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11FM.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1958 September 6 - . Launch Site: Pacific Ocean. Launch Pad: 40.0 N x 170.0 E. Launch Platform: B-62. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11FM.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1958 October 4 - . 15:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11A.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 103 km (64 mi).

1958 October 10 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11A.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 103 km (64 mi).

1958 October 31 - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11A.
  • First R-11A? Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 103 km (64 mi).

1958 November 6 - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11A.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 103 km (64 mi).

1958 November 19 - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11A.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 103 km (64 mi).

1958 December 23 - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11A.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1958 December 25 - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11A.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 102 km (63 mi).

1959 - . Launch Site: Sea-launched. Launch Pad: BELA. Launch Platform: B-67. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11FM. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: VMF. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1959 February 20 - . LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11FM.
  • R-11FM accepted into military service. - . Nation: USSR. Decree 'On adoption of the R-11FM into armaments' was issued. The first Soviet SLBM system was accepted, but never deployed on an operational vessel. However the project had cemented Makeyev's relationship with the Soviet Navy, which decided to make him their sole source for all future naval ballistic missiles.

1959 July 20 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11A.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1959 July 21 - . 02:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11A.
  • Ionosphere / aeronomy / solar x-ray mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 105 km (65 mi).

1959 July 21 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11A.
  • Ionosphere / aeronomy / solar x-ray mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 105 km (65 mi).

1959 July 22 - . 01:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11A.
  • Ionosphere / aeronomy mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 211 km (131 mi).

1959 October 15 - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11A.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1959 October 15 - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11A.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1959 December 3 - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11A.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1959 December 3 - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11A.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1960 June 23 - . 05:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11A.
  • Aeronomy / ionosphere mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1960 July 15 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11A.
  • Ionosphere / aeronomy mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 206 km (128 mi).

1960 September 10 - . Launch Site: Sea-launched. Launch Pad: BELA. Launch Platform: B-67. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11FM.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: VMF. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1960 September 21 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11A.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 210 km (130 mi).

1960 September 23 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11A.
  • Ionosphere / aeronomy mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1961 February 2 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11A.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1961 February 2 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11A.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1961 February 15 - . 08:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11A.
  • Ultraviolet ozone spectra Aeronomy / Solar Eclipse mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 96 km (59 mi).

1961 September 23 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11A.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1961 October 27 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11A.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1961 October 27 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11A.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1962 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11A-MV.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1962 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11A-MV.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1962 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11A-MV.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1962 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11A-MV.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1962 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11A-MV.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1963 January 27 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11A.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1965 May 7 - . 07:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1965 May 8 - . 10:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1965 May 14 - . 19:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11.
  • Ionosphere mission? - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1965 May 15 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1965 May 18 - . 09:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

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